112 terms

History 101 final exam study guide


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Both Mesopotamian and Egyptian society relied heavily on slave labor for agricultural and building work.
By the end of Solomon's rule, the cult of Yahweh had expelled all worship of foreign deities and acted as a glue to hold the Hebrew kingdom together after the Davidic dynasty ended.
For much of the Archaic Age, the aristocrats held power in Greece but differing forms
of government developed. Among these forms of government were all of the following except
Macedonian rule in Egypt was characterized by
a revival of ancient traditions associated with the pharaohs
Rome was a crucial factor in the development of European civilization because
Rome connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East.
Historians now refer to the period from 284 to 610 C.E. as Late Antiquity because
it is a period with its own themes and developments, neither wholly Roman
and not yet medieval
In terms of organization, the fourth-century Christian Church was
more defined in hierarchical terms, with a clergy distributed among patriarchs,
bishops, priests, and deacons.
Compared to medieval Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Islamic world was
more advanced in technological sophistication, science, and philosophy
Byzantine culture was the means by which the heritage of Western civilization was preserved for the Europe where Greek had become very rare.
In northern Europe, increasing use of the heavy-wheeled plow between 800 and 1050 coincided with
fundamental changes in patterns of peasant settlement.
The two fundamental factors driving the high medieval European economy were
. population growth and an increasingly efficient market for goods.
The social mobility of the fourteenth century was made possible largely due to
. the Black Death
The invention of movable type printing and the printing press made possible
. the Protestant Reformation in the following century.
The Renaissance originated in Italy because
in the fourteenth century the papacy was the center of cultural and artistic
innovation in Europe
One important difference between the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance that followed was the northern
. interest in traditional Christian wisdom over classical virtues
The English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 was a decisive moment in Western history because
. had the Spanish defeated the English, Protestantism would have defeated
Catholicism throughout Europe.
The Thirty Years' War began when
. France, a Catholic country, went to war against the Protestant princes of
Loyola's Spiritual Exercises offers an interesting contrast to Luther's writings because in Loyola's work
Christians can master their will and work toward their salvation.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, absolutism was a political theory that
. allowed rulers to govern by divine right and according to their own will.
Major towns and cities in the High Middle Ages
sustained their population only through continuous immigration from the
Compared to the western Europe of 1300, the western Europe of 1450 had _________ people and a(n) _________ standard of living.
. fewer; higher
Historians today generally use the term Renaissance to refer to
a period in intellectual and cultural history, marked by a new interest in the study of classical learning
. According to Machiavelli, the ideal form of government for his native city of Florence was
a republic modeled on the Roman example.
Protestantism began as a dissent against the Church and had many radical manifestations, but it eventually became "domesticated" due to
a dependence of Protestant leaders on local political leaders.
In England, Charles II triggered a crisis not unlike that produced by his father's rule when he
. began modeling his kingship on the absolutism of Louis XIV
. In late medieval Italy there was a renewed interest in studying texts written in Greek because:
Greek-speaking intellectuals fled to Italy as the Mongols and Ottoman Turks continually took territory from the Byzantine empire
The growth of power claims based on classical models, including patronage of the arts, occurred in Renaissance Italy due to the:
relative weakness of the Church, which no longer provided an alternate model
. The early humanist Petrarch criticized late-medieval scholasticism because he felt it
concentrated more on abstract speculation than on virtuous living
The goal of the humanist education system was to:
produce virtuous citizens and able public officials.
When the Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1453, the primary effect of their conquest on western Europe was
The Ottoman empire was tolerant of all faiths EXCEPT
Non-Sunni Muslims
The French victories over the English during the second phase of the Hundred Years' War were, in part, due to the
professionalization of the French Army
Henry V was so successful in taking territory from France during the latter part of the Hundred Years' War that he was able to force the king of France to:
concede his crown
Joan of Arc was a problematic leader of the French forces during the latter part of the Hundred Years' War because:
she regularly fought with the military generals she was supposed to lead.
. The Holy Roman Empire and the Italian Peninsula did not unite as national monarchies in part because
continual armed conflict and shifting alliances prevented the emergence of strong, centralizing rulers in these territories.
The emerging national monarchies in late medieval Europe resulted in:
greater militarization and more warfare
. The invention of the printing press in Europe increased the volume and rapidity of communication, thereby
making it more difficult to censor problematic or dissenting opinions.
. The printing press was a tool of European monarchs because
it enabled the widespread circulation of propaganda
Unlike most other Italian intellectuals of his age, Niccolò Machiavelli was:
a truly original thinker about politics
According to Machiavelli, the ideal form of government was a(n)
republic modeled on the Roman example
. Italian painters of the fifteenth century mastered
the use of vanishing perspective to depict three dimensions
For Michelangelo, the central feature of Renaissance humanism was:
the drive to understand the place of a disembodied soul
All of the following are reasons why the ideals of the Italian Renaissance were slow to impact northern Europe EXCEPT that
few people traveled between Italy and northern Europe before the turn of the sixteenth century
After the Council of Constance, the papacy entered into a series of agreements with national monarchies called concordats. The result of these concordats was:
the granting of extensive authority to monarchs over the churches in their domain
The most important factor in the rise of Spain as a major European power was the:
unification of the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile.
Ferdinand and Isabella's decision to sponsor Columbus's voyage was spurred by:
a desire to counter successful Portuguese exploratory and commercial ventures.
In their voyages along the west coast of Africa, the Portuguese were initially in search of:
. Although only 1 out of 5 ships and 18 out of 265 sailors returned from Magellan's voyage, it proved that:
a western sea route to Asia was economically feasible.
The Spanish modeled their Caribbean sugar plantations worked by enslaved African laborers on:
Portuguese sugar plantations on the Cape Verde Islands
The most lucrative export of the Spanish colonies in Central and South America was:
The massive influx of silver from New World Spanish colonies resulted in:
massive inflation.
Within a century of the Europeans' arrival in Central America, the native population there declined by as much as:
50 percent
Luther believed that works of piety and charity were:
vital acts that determined a Christian's state before God.
Luther was driven to post his Ninety-five Theses by:
the sale of indulgences in his region, which promised automatic salvation.
. Luther's doctrine of the "priesthood of all believers" argued that:
everyone, even priests, were equal before God.
One reason why Luther was able to win great public support for his position was the introduction of:
printed pamphlets to disseminate his views.
Many graduates of universities in Germany became supporters of Luther because:
they wanted to support the religious movement of one of their countrymen.
Lutheranism was attractive to many princes in Germany because:
they believed that the new faith would give them more control over religious policies, personnel, and wealth in their territories.
Aside from religious motivations, many free cities in the Holy Roman Empire found Lutheranism appealing because:
town councils and guild masters could use reforms as a way to oppose local aristocrats and bishops.
The German Peasants' Revolt of 1525:
cemented the alliance of Lutheranism with state power.
In comparison to Lutheranism, Calvinism was much more:
hierarchical in its structures of church government.
The settlement reached via the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 was that
each German prince would rule a territory that was Catholic or Lutheran based on his own choice of faith.
Protestantism introduced a new exemplar of female holiness, the:
By the sixteenth century, both Protestant and Catholic cities were
founding churches of both faiths within their walls
. At the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church:
reaffirmed almost all of the doctrinal claims that Protestants criticized.
The extraordinary movement of peoples, plants, animals, goods, cultures, and diseases in the sixteenth century is called the:
Columbian Exchange
While more than 7 million slaves were taken from Africa to the Americas, the number of European colonists who came to the Americas before 1700 was approximately
On a typical merchant run along the "triangle trade" route, a British ship would sail from England with manufactured goods, trade the goods for slaves in Africa, and then:
trade the slaves for tobacco in Virginia.
The Edict of Nantes:
recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France but allowed Protestants certain rights
The Thirty Years' War began when:
France, a Catholic country, went to war against the Protestant princes of Germany.
From an international perspective, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) marked the:
emergence of France as the dominant power in Europe, eclipsing Spain.
The primary goal of Cardinal Richelieu's government was to:
increase and centralize royal power over France.
Absolute monarchs developed all of the following institutions to enhance their power EXCEPT:
representative legislative bodies.
Many Roman Catholic churchmen viewed the "New Science," especially as typified by Copernican theory:
as a direct threat to Church doctrine.
The new scientific societies did all of the following EXCEPT:
gave natural philosophers a common sense of purpose.
Neolithic revolution
the new stone age which began around 11000 bce saw new technological and social developments including managed food productions the beginnings of permanent settlements and the rapid intensification of trade
fertile crescent
area of fertile land in what is now syria, israel, turkey, eastern iraq and western iran, sustained settlements with abundant natural food sources, 9000 and 4500
ruler of babylon from 1792 to 1750 bce, he issued a collection of laws that were greatly influential in the near east.
means household. Title for rulers of egypt. lasted powerful and centralized bureaucratic state ruled by the pharoahs lasted for around 3000 years
the writing system of anchient egypt based on pictorial symbols.
Ten commandments
Ten Commandments definition. The commandments engraved on stone tablets and given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. These commandments are the heart of the divine law in the Old Testament. The usual enumeration is: (I) I am the Lord thy God; thou shalt have no other gods before me.
sea peoples
The Sea Peoples naval raiders of the Mediterranean region between c. 1276-1178 BCE, concentrating on Egypt.
Xeres 1
519-465 bce succeeded his father darius as great king of persia seeking to avvenge his fathers shame. launced an invasion on greece in 480 bce an allied greek army defeated his forces in 479 bce
Anchient greek city state. began to emerge in the ninth century bce organized around an urban center.
Alexander the great
356-323 bce the macedonian king whose conquests of the persian empire and egypt created a new helenistic world
an aristocrat or nobleman.
A Roman legion normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens.
247-183 b.c, Carthaginian general who crossed the Alps and invaded Italy (son of Hamilcar Barca).
Julius caesar
1100 BC - 44 BC was a Roman statesman, general, and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Emperor of Rome who stopped the persecution of Christians and in 324 made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire; in 330 he moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople (280-337)
Kingdom of jerusalem
crusader state established in the in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks, but its history is divided into two distinct periods.
holy roman empire
A major political institution in Europe that lasted from the ninth to the nineteenth centuries. It was loosely organized and modeled somewhat on the ancient Roman Empire. It included great amounts of territory in the central and western parts of Europe. Charlemagne was its first emperor.
nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection
the medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code.
John Calvin
1509 - 1564) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation.
a French Protestant of the 16th-17th centuries. Largely Calvinist, the Huguenots suffered severe persecution at the hands of the Catholic majority, and many thousands emigrated from France.
Edict of nantes
The Edict of Nantes (French: Édit de Nantes), signed probably on 30 April 1598, by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was, at the time, still considered essentially Catholic.
Thirty years war
Thirty Years' War definition. A war waged in the early seventeenth century that involved France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, and numerous states of Germany. The causes of the war were rooted in national rivalries and in conflict between Roman Catholics and Protestants
Cristolf Columbus
An Italian explorer responsible for the European discovery of America in 1492. He had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain, under the patronage of the king and queen, Ferdinand and Isabella, hoping to find a westward route to India.
the acceptance of or belief in absolute principles in political, philosophical, ethical, or theological matters.
Cardinal richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu was the chief of government under King Louis XIII. He achieved two difficult goals in his career: establishing absolute monarchy in France and breaking the political power of the Huguenots, or French Protestants.
the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism.
adherence to a system of constitutional government
magna carta
a charter of liberties to which the English barons forced King John to give his assent in June 1215 at Runnymede. 2 : a document constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges.
glorious revolution
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).
bill of rights
the English constitutional settlement of 1689, confirming the deposition of James II and the accession of William and Mary, guaranteeing the Protestant succession, and laying down the principles of parliamentary supremacy
John Locke
Locke, John definition. A seventeenth-century English philosopher. Locke argued against the belief that human beings are born with certain ideas already in their minds. He claimed that, on the contrary, the mind is a tabula rasa (blank slate) until experience begins to "write" on it.
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler (German: [ˈkɛplɐ]; December 27, 1571 - November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
having or representing the sun as the center, as in the accepted astronomical model of the solar system.
Galileo galilei
Galileo Galilei Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
Isaac newton
Isaac Newton - English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727) Newton, Sir Isaac Newton. Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection.
a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith.