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Kin 358 - Exercise in Heat
Terms in this set (85)
What is the most important component of a drink designed to improve rehydration?
What heat illness occurs when the skin is clammy, sweating still occurs, and the person is pale and nauseous?
What beverage is best for rehydration?
Water or chicken broth
What electrolyte improves water retention in the body best?
Carbohydrates is frequently referred to as CHO because
it contains Carbon, H+, and O-
Heavy sweating results in _______ changes in muscle electrolyte contents
What factors reduce gastric emptying?
- caloric content
How does the body respond to cold exposure?
increases thyroxin release and catecholamines to induce shivering, vasoconstriction
What type of clothing style should be worn during exercise in the heat?
short sleeve netted jerseys, loose fitting, light in color, no socks, and remove clothing after rest periods
What is the best way to rehydrate after exercise?
eat soup-- or drink water?
_____ air holds more water
What two factors increase the rate of intestinal absorption of water?
carbohydrates and sodium
What is the best drink following exercise, regardless of duration and intensity?
In order for sweat to evaporate, the PH2O of the skin has to be ______ than the PH2O of the environment
Most sports drinks need more _______.
What is the average sweat rate during exercise in the heat?
What body water compartment does most (the most liters) of the water loss come from heavy sweating?
The most water loss comes from the intracellular volume, but the percent decrease in volume is more dramatic in plasma volume and interstitial volume
Under normal, resting conditions, in a thermoneutral environment, most of the heat is removed by ______.
After Richard becomes heat acclimated, he will sweat _____ and _____
What factors DO NOT help increase the rate of gastric emptying?
-drinks with lots of sugar impair gastric emptying
-concentrated drinks impair gastric emptying and slow water
absorption by the small intestine
What is the best explanation for the fact that Micky will use less glycogen during exercise?
reduced epinephrine levels in heat acclimated people, results in less stimulation of phosphorylation and glycogen use
What will be higher if Annika exercises in the heat, compared to exercising in the cool?
What environmental conditions would provide the greatest heat stress?
Clear sky and still air environment would provide greatest heat stress. High Humidity!
The electrolyte concentration of sweat is strongly influenced by state of heat acclimation
FALSE, influenced by genetics and rate of sweating, also it would be influenced by acclamation, NOT acclimatization
Wind increases heat loss from the skin primarily by _______.
Distance running races in the summer should be scheduled _________.
Before 8:00am or after 6:00pm
When body temperature reaches 104 to 106F (40-41C), you stop sweating, and you become confused or pass out, you are experiencing _______.
The body's heating and cooling mechanisms are activated by the _______.
The rate of heat loss in cold water is affected by
During immersion in cold water the body loses heat primarily by
List the changes in the cardiovascular when someone exercises in the heat
-Lower exercise HR
-Muscle blood flow is lower
-lower blood lactate during submaximal exercise in the heat
During heavy exercise in a hot environment, there is competition for blood supply between the _____ and the _______
active muscles, skin
Exercise training and repeated heat exposure will decrease the concentration of _______ in one's sweat
What electrolytes are found in highest concentration in sweat?
Sodium, Chloride (sodium higher than chloride)
Mineral and fluid loss in sweat during exercises in the heat stimulates increased release of _______ and _______, thus reducing fluid and mineral loss in the urine
The environmental temperature is over 35C (94F) with a humidity of 10% under these conditions, your body's only major avenue of body heat loss would be
Under resting conditions, the primary means by what excess heat is removed from body is _______, but during exercise the majority of the excess body heat is removed via _______.
High humidity seriously impairs your ability to ______.
What changes occur(s) with heat acclimatization?
-sweating begins earlier during exercise
-sweat becomes more dilute
-sweating rate during exercise is increased
Under the conditions of an environmental temperature of more than 95F (35C) with a humidity of 10%, one's concern after several hours of relatively high-intensity exercise would be
Children have more difficulty in maintaining body temperature in the cold than do adults because ________.
less body fat
What blood flow changes occur when a person exercises in a hot, humid environment, compared to a cool environment?
More blood to skin than muscles in heat
What produces the greatest amount of metabolic heat during exercise?
Muscles--response to movement
On a hot day, how should water be consumed during exercise?
Proportionally to how much water is lost during exercise. Cold water will rehydrate faster
While doing an experiment on a stationary bicycle ergometer, you notice that the subject's body temperature is lower when he has a fan blowing on him. What would explain this finding?
Convection due to the air blowing across the skin
What is of most importance in determining the amount of heat stress?
Humidity: Wet Bulb Globe Temp = (0.7xWetBulbTemp [humidity]) + (0.2xBlackxGlobeTemp [solar radiation]) + (0.1xDryBulbTemp[airtemperature])
2. Solar Radiation
3. Air temperature
What part of the central nervous system is the integrating center for regulating the body temperature?
What would be consequences of being dehydrated at the begging of exercise?
HR increases and rectal temperature increases, decrease in performance
Under resting conditions, the _____ serves an important role in the regulation of body electrolytes
What is the most serious of heat disorders?
What is the term used to describe the heat illness characterized by a body temperature of between 104 and 106 F, cessation of sweating (hot, dry skin), and total confusion or unconsciousness
What is the major mechanism of heat loss during exercise in hot environments?
What should be ingested during exercise in the heat?
What are adaptations associated with heat acclimation?
Increased plasma volume, lower heart rate during exercise, lower body temp, reduced muscle glycogen use during exercise, increased sweat rate, bigger sweat glands, increased sweat dilution, lower blood epinephrine levels, increased performance, reduced muscle pH during exercise, reduced blood lactate during exercise.
What describes the process of heat acclimation/acclimitization?
-repeated days of exercise in the heat = acclimation
-acclimitization is more long term physiological changes
What fuel is used more during exercise in the heat when someone is acclimated?
You use more muscle glycogen in the heat, but an acclimated person uses less than an unacclimated person. Possibly use more glucose than unacclimated person?
The body uses more glycogen during exercise of a given absolute intensity in a hot environment than during the same exercise in a cool environment
Heat acclimation requires more than one month of exercise in the heat to be complete
False, only requires 3-5 days
A person who is acclimated to the heat will use less muscle glycogen during exercise in the heat
The increase in plasma volume that accompanies heat acclimation is associated with an increase in red blood cell volume
The increase in plasma volume that occurs as a consequence of training in a cool environment is equal to the increase in plasma volume that occurs when people acclimate to the heat
False, the increase in plasma volume is more when exercising in the heat
Factors that tend to overload the cardiovascular system have no effect on body temperature regulation
false, a rise in body temp is seen
Individuals who must work with their bare hands in cold water develop increased vasoconstriction to maintain the hands' skin temperature
Heat acclimatization can be fully achieved by exercising in the heat for an hour each day for 5-10 days
When sports drinks enter the stomach, their composition is altered by the secretion of fluids from the stomach lining
Most composition alterations are a result of pancreatic enzymes released into the small intestine
Compared to dogs, humans have a relatively sluggish thirst mechanism
Sweat is more concentrated than either blood or muscle
False, sweat is more dilute than plasma or muscle
More highly concentrated sweat is a characteristic adaptation to heat stress
False, more dilute sweat is an adaptive characteristic
When skin temperature is lower than the environmental temperature, the body gains heat via conduction, convection, and radiation
Conductive heat loss from the body during cold-water immersion is 26 times greater than in air
Women tend to have much better cold tolerance than men
Cold stress increases the amount of thyroxine in the blood
Once the body temperature falls below 35C (94F), the hypothalamus begins to lose its ability to control body temperature
The electrolyte concentration of sweat is strongly influenced by state of heat acclimatization
Dehydration causes heart rate to go up
Heat acclimatization can be fully achieved by sitting in the hot sun for an hour per day for 12-15 days
Athletes who compete in the heat should perform all of their training in a cooler environment to avoid dehydration when they compete
A person with a low body fat percentage is more susceptible to hypothermia when immersed in cold water than is a person with high body fat percentage
Decreased amount of sweating for a given increase in body temperature
sweating increases with body temp?
Increased amount of sweating for a given increase in body temperature
Increased ability to perform sprint exercises after prolonged exercise-heat stress
get better at sprinting in heat after adaptation (but exercising in heat when not used to it, you will perform worse)
Strength is lower after dehydration
Powerade or gatorade is better for rehydration than drinking water
Eating a meal reduces fluid intake
True, increased caloric intake reduces fluid intake
Eating fat increases fluid intake
False, fat reduces fluid intake
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