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Define system software
consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices. System software serves as the interface between the user, the application software, and the computer's hardware.
Define Operating system -
(OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources.
What do operating systems do-
Most perform similar functions that include starting and shutting down computer, providing user interface, managing programs, managing memory, coordinating tasks, configuring devices, establishing internet connection, monitoring performance, providing file management, and updating. Some operating systems also allow users to control a network and administer security.
Where does the operating system usually reside-
It resides on the computer's hard disk. On handheld computers and many mobile devices, the operating system may reside on a ROM chip.
A cross-platform is -
A cross-platform program is one that runs the same on multiple operating systems.
Warm boot -
The process of using the operating system to restart a computer. It properly closes any running processes and programs, however, it does not save any unsaved work.
What is the kernel -
The core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the computer's clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer's resources, such as devices, programs, data, and information.
What does memory resident mean -
it means it remains in memory while the computer is running. The Kernel does this.
Power on self test - checks the various system components to make sure they are connected properly and operating correctly.
a technology that uses batter power to retain information when the computer is off. It stores configuration information about the computer, such as amount of memory, type of drives, keyboard, monitor, date/stime, etc. It also detects any new devices connected to the computer.
boot disk/recovery disk
contains a few system files that will start the computer if drive C is damaged or you want to preview an operating system without installing it.
saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns of unneeded functions, places computer in low-power state.
saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer.
controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen.
Graphical user interface
GUI - interact with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands, usually incorporates features similar to those of a Web browser.
Windows offers 2 different types of GUIS
Computers with less than 1 GB of Ram use Windows 7. Computers with more that 1 GB may use Windows 7 Aero interface.
Command line interface
A user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions. Requires exact spelling, grammar, and puncheon.
single user/multitasking operating system
allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time. (using foreground and background)
multiprocessing operating system -
supports two or more processors running programs at the same time
Fault-tolerant computer -
a computer with separate processors - continues to operate when one of its components fails, ensuring that no data is lost. They have duplicate components such as processors, memory, and disk drives.
Ram consists of
one or more chips on the motherboard that hold items such as data and instructions with while the processor interprets and executes them.
when the operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium, usually the hard disk, to function as additional RAM. slower that RAM.
when an operating system spends much of its time paging, instead of executing application software.
Windows ReadyBoost -
used to increase the size of memory by allocating available storage space on removable flash memory devices.
a segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device.
when the operating system commonly uses buffers with printed documents. Sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer.
intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places them in the queue.
plug and play
means the operating system automatically configures new devices as you install them. Specifically, it assists you in the device's installation by loading the necessary drivers automatically and checking for conflicts with other devices.
a program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices. For example, users can monitor the processor, disks, network, and memory usage. It helps users identify a problem with resources so that they can try to resolve any problems.
feature that automatically provides updates to the program. Can included fixes to program bugs, or errors, enhancements to security, modifications to device drivers, access to new components, and even updates to application software.
free downloadable updates to users who have registered and or activated their software.
Server operating system
-designed specifically to support a network - typically resides on the server.
an operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network. Resources included hardware, software, data, and information. For example, it allows multiple users to share a printer, internet access, files, and programs.
enables administrators to access all files and programs on the computer or network, install programs, and specify settings that affect all users on the network.
to access a computer or network with user name or user ID - a unique combination of characters, letters or numbers that identifies one specific user.
private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources.ENCRYPTION
software that is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model.
device-independent operating systems
operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers. The advantage is you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or vendors.
stand-alone operating system
a complete operating system that works on a desktop, notebook, or mobile computing device. Some are called client operating systems because they also work in conjunction with a server operating system. Examples are Windows 7, Mac OSX, UNIX, Linux.
List some stand-alone operating systems
DOS, Early windows versions, Windows &, Mac OS X, UNIX, Linux
List some embedded operating systems
Windows embedded CE, Windows Phone 7, Palm OS, IPhone OS, Blackberry, Google Android, Embedded Linux, Symbian OS
also known as a widget is a mini-program with minimal functionality that connects to another program or provides information. Examples included with Windows 7 include calendar, clock, CPU meter, currency converter, news headlines, slide show, weather, etc.
Windows 7 starter
designed for netbooks and other small notebook computers using the Windows 7 Basic interface.
multi-tasking/multipurpose operating system developed in the 1970s by Bell Labs that was prevented from actively promoting it due to federal regulations. Was licensed to colleges and universities instead. Currently used by Sun and IBM. In addition to being a stand-alone operating system it is also a server operating system.
introduced in 1991, popular, multitasking multipurpose operating system. Also includes many free programming languages and utility programs. open source software with no restrictions from its copyright. Two most popular are GNOME AND KDE.
Windows Server 2008
an upgrade to Windows Server 2003 and also offers improved web server management so users can share data, enhanced server security, network access protection, shares many technologies with Windows, and client support using Windows, Mac OS, UNIX, and Linux.
A server operating system - version of UNIX developed by Sun specifically for e-commerce applications.
Windows embedded CE
scaled down Windows operating system designed for ruse on communications, entertainment, and computing devices with limited functionality. VoIp phones, industrial devices, digital cameras, Point of Sale terminals, ATMs, digital photo frames, fuel pumps, robots navigation devices, media players, ticket machines, and computerized sewing machines.
A GUI that supports color, sound, multitasking, multimedia, email, Internet and browsing.
Windows Phone 7
successor to Windows Mobile, includes functionality, programs, and a user interface designed for specific types of smart phones. supports multi-touch screens
scaled-down Linux operating system designed for smart phones, PDAs portable media players, phones and computers.
type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs. Functions it provides are managing files, searching for files, viewing images, uninstalling program, cleaning disks, defragmenting, backing up, setting up screen savers, securing a computer from unauthorized access, protecting against viruses, removing spyware, filtering, compressing, playing media, burning optical discs, and maintaining a personal computer.
utility that performs functions related to file management. (displaying a list of files on storage, organizing files in folders, copying, renaming, deleting, moving, sorting, shortcuts)
an icon on the desktop or in a folder that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file.
a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify.
stores a variety of information about a file, including its name, date created, dote modified, author name, etc.
utility that allows users to display, copy and print the contents of a graphics file, such as a photo.
a utility that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files.
utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer's hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster.
allows users to copy, or back up selected files or an entire disk to another storage medium such as another hard disk, USB, or tape.
reverses the process of a backup file and returns backed up files to their original form.
a utility that causes a display device's screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a specified time.
a utility that detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions. They constantly monitor all transmissions to and from a computer.
describes a potential damaging computer program that affects or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the users knowledge or permission.
short for malicious software - acts without a user's knowledge and deliberately alters the computer's operations.
Malware that hides within or looks like a legitimate program such as a screen saver and a certain action triggers it.
protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or incoming files.
program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge that secretly collects information about the user, often related to Web browsing habits.
internet advertisement that suddenly appears in a new window in the foreground of a web page displayed in your browser
file compression utility
shrinks the size of a file. A compressed file takes up less storage space than the original and frees up room on the storage media.
causes small degradations each time compressed -
is used on audio and video files because the small degradations will not usually be noticeable.
can return a compressed file to its exact original condition - used in text files.
program that allows you to view images and animations, listen to audio, and watch video files on computer.
disc burning software
writes text, graphics, audio, and video files on a recordable or rewritable CD, DVD, or Blu-ray. enables the home user to back up contents of their hard disk on optical disc and make duplicates.
personal computer maintenance utility
identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer's performance. Norton SystemWorks is a popular one.
Name several utility programs
file manager, search utility, image viewer, uninstaller, disk defragmenter, backup utility, restore utility, screen saver, personal firewall, antivirus program, spyware remover, web filtering, anti-spam program, phishing filter, pop-up blocker, file compression utility, media player, disc burning software, personal computer maintenance utility
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