42 terms

IGCSE Theme 1 - Population and Settlement

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Population
Total number of people that live in the same area.
Birth rate
the number of births in a year for every 1,000 people in a population
Death rate
the number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people in a population
Population structure
How the population is made up of people of different ages, and of males and females.
Demographic Transition Model
The change in the population structure with economic development
Youthful Population
A population structure that has a large proportion of young people (aged 0-15)
Ageing Population
A population in which there is a high percentage of people aged over 65
Migration
A movement from one country or region to another
Push Factors
Factors that make people want to leave an area
Pull factors
Factors that attract people to move to a new location.
Over population
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Under population
Too few people to use resources to the full potential, so standard of living could be higher
Densely populated
Many people living per km2
Sparsely populated
Few people living per km2
Population distribution
how population is spread out in an area
Internal migration
Migration within a country
International migration
movement across country boundaries
Voluntary migration
Movement undertaken by choice.
Forced migration
The migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will.
Refugee
A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster and has been legally accepted by another country
Settlement
A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants.
Sphere of influence
The area that is served by a settlement or a service
Threshold population
The minimum amount of people required for a service to be offered and remain open.
Range
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
High order
They are goods that cost a lot but are not bought often
One that has a higher range and higher threshold
things you want but not need and are willing to travel further for
Low order
Shops provide customers with convenience goods and services that they need daily
A good that has both a low range and low threshold
Settlement site
a land upon which a settlement is built
Settlement situation
Where a settlement is located in relation to other settlements
Settlement service
anything that is provided in a settlement for the population, businesses and public services e.g. schools, police, hospitals
Settlement function
the reason or function that caused the town to grow in the first place e.g. market or port
Urbanisation
Increase in the proportion of the countries population living in towns and cities
Urban Morphology
The physical structure of a city or urban region.
Land use
Various ways humans use the land such as agricultural, industrial, residential, or recreational
Central Business District
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Residential
Relating to an area where people live
Rural-Urban fringe
an area where growing suburbs meet farmland
Traffic congestion
heavy traffic making it difficult to move around a town or city
Urban sprawl
The spread of a city into the surrounding countryside
Squatter settlements
An area within a city in a less developed country in which poeple illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Out of town shopping centre
Major retail centres built away from city centres e.g. Old Trafford, Manchester
Urban redevelopment
The process of renovating an area of a city, often by completely destroying dilapidated structures and rebuilding on the site.
Settlement hierarchy
an ordering of settlements by size of population
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