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140 terms

PSY2012 Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion

STUDY
PLAY
motivation
A need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal.
instinct theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective)
Four perspectives that explain motivation: 1)_______; 2) drive reduction theory (biological needs); 3) arousal theory; 4) hierarchy of motives.
drive reduction theory (biological needs)
Four perspectives that explain motivation: 1) instinct theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective); 2)_________; 3) arousal theory; 4) hierarchy of motives.
arousal theory
Four perspectives that explain motivation: 1) instinct theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective); 2) drive reduction theory (biological needs); 3)________; 4) hierarchy of motives.
hierarchy of motives
Four perspectives that explain motivation: 1) instinct theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective); 2) drive reduction theory (biological needs); 3) arousal theory; 4) ________.
Instincts
Complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned.
Drive Reduction Theory
The idea that a physiological need creates and aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
physiological needs
Basic bodily requirements.
drive
An aroused, motivated state, that PUSHES us into action, often created by deprivation of a needed substance.
incentive
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior, and PULLS us into action.
incentive
An EXtrinsic motivator.
drive
An INtrinsic motivator.
Arousal Theory
Theory that states that human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it.
Abraham Maslow
Name of the founder of the humanistic approach to psychology.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs; at the base are physiological needs that must be satisfied before higher-level safety needs, and then psychological needs, become active.
physiological needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1)_______; 2) safety; 3) belongingness and love; 4) esteem; 5) self-actualization.
safety
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1) physiological needs; 2)_______; 3) belongingness and love ; 4) esteem; 5) self-actualization.
belongingness and love
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1) physiological needs; 2) safety; 3)_______; 4) esteem; 5) self-actualization.
esteem
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1) physiological needs; 2) safety; 3) belongingness and love ; 4)_______; 5) self-actualization.
self-actualization
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels): 1) physiological needs; 2) safety; 3) belongingness and love ; 4) esteem; 5) _______.
physiological
Type of need: need to satisfy hunger and thirst.
safety
Type of need: need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; to feel safe, secure and stable.
belongingness and love
Type of need: need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted, to avoid loneliness and alienation.
esteem
Type of need: need for self-esteem, achievement, competence and independence, need for recognition and respect from others.
self actualization
Type of need: need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential.
hypothalamus
Part of the brain that receives messages from the stomach, liver and intestines about levels of glucose in the blood.
memory
Mental process that plays an important part in hunger, so that amnesia patients eat frequently if given food.
set point
The point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
basal metabolic rate
The body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
heredity
_______ influences our body type and the "set point" of the body's weight 'thermostat'.
body chemistry and environment
Two factors that influence when we feel hunger and what we feel hungry for.
glucose
The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body issues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent woman) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) under weight. Continuously loses weight but still feels overweight.
bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder in which a person alternates episodes of binge-eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (vomiting, laxative use), fasting or excessive exercise.
sexual abuse (contributes but not causes)
Four reasons for eating disorders: 1)_______; 2) family (excessive concern with weight); 3) genetics; 4) sports.
family (excessive concern with weight)
Four reasons for eating disorders: 1) sexual abuse (contributes but not causes); 2) _______; 3) genetics; 4) sports.
genetics
Four reasons for eating disorders: 1) sexual abuse (contributes but not causes); 2) family (excessive concern with weight); 3) _______; 4) sports.
sports
Four reasons for eating disorders: 1) sexual abuse (contributes but not causes); 2) family (excessive concern with weight); 3) genetics; 4) _______.
obesity
Disorder characterized by being excessively overweight.
cardiovascular disease and heart disease
Ten health issues increased by obesity:1) _______; 2) _______; 3) diabetes; 4) hypertension; 5) arthritis; 6) back problems; 7) cancer 8) gallstones; 9) shorter life expectancy; 10) death.
diabetes and hypertension
Ten health issues increased by obesity: 1) cardiovascular disease; 2) heart disease; 3) _______; 4) _______; 5) arthritis; 6) back problems; 7) cancer 8) gallstones; 9) shorter life expectancy; 10) death.
arthritis and back problems
Ten health issues increased by obesity: 1) cardiovascular disease; 2) heart disease; 3) diabetes; 4) hypertension; 5) _______; 6) _______; 7) cancer 8) gallstones; 9) shorter life expectancy; 10) death.
cancer and gallstones
Ten health issues increased by obesity: 1) cardiovascular disease; 2) heart disease; 3) diabetes; 4) hypertension; 5) arthritis; 6) back problems; 7) _______ 8) _______; 9) shorter life expectancy; 10) death.
shorter life expectancy and death
Ten health issues increased by obesity: 1) cardiovascular disease; 2) heart disease; 3) diabetes; 4) hypertension; 5) arthritis; 6) back problems; 7) cancer 8) gallstones; 9) _______; 10) _______.
30 to 40 billion
Number of fat cells in a normal body.
2 to 3
How many times can a fat cell increase in size?
75 billion
Number of fat cells that an obese person can reach.
Inactivity
How TV contributes to increase of weight.
be motivated
Five steps to losing weight: 1) _______; 2) begin a weight loss program; 3) minimize exposure to tempting foods; 4) exercise; 5) forgive yourself for lapses.
begin a weight loss program
Five steps to losing weight: 1) be motivated; 2) _______; 3) minimize exposure to tempting foods; 4) exercise; 5) forgive yourself for lapses.
minimize exposure to tempting foods
Five steps to losing weight: 1) be motivated; 2) begin a weight loss program; 3) _______; 4) exercise; 5) forgive yourself for lapses.
exercise
Five steps to losing weight: 1) be motivated; 2) begin a weight loss program; 3) minimize exposure to tempting foods; 4) _______; 5) forgive yourself for lapses.
forgive yourself for lapses
Five steps to losing weight: 1) be motivated; 2) begin a weight loss program; 3) minimize exposure to tempting foods; 4) exercise; 5) _______.
hypothalamus monitoring appetite
Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) _______; 2) appetite hormones; 3) stomach pangs; 4) weight set point; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.
appetite hormones
Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) _______; 3) stomach pangs; 4) weight set point; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.
stomach pangs
Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) appetite hormones; 3) _______; 4) weight set point; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.
weight set point
Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) appetite hormones; 3) stomach pangs; 4) _______; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.
universal attraction of sweet and salty
Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) appetite hormones; 3) stomach pangs; 4) weight set point; 5) _______; 6) adaptive wariness toward novel foods.
adaptive wariness toward novel foods
Six BIOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) hypothalamus monitoring appetite; 2) appetite hormones; 3) stomach pangs; 4) weight set point; 5) universal attraction of sweet and salty; 6) _______.
sight and smell of a variety of tasty foods
Three PSYCHOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) _______; 2) memory of time elapsed since last meal; 3) mood.
memory of time elapsed since last meal
Three PSYCHOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) sight and smell of a variety of tasty foods; 2) _______; 3) mood.
mood
Three PSYCHOLOGICAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) sight and smell of a variety of tasty foods; 2) memory of time elapsed since last meal; 3) _______.
culturally learned taste preferences
Three SOCIO-CULTURAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) _______; 2) learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness; 3) expected serving size.
learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness
Three SOCIO-CULTURAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) culturally learned taste preferences; 2) _______; 3) expected serving size.
expected serving size
Three SOCIO-CULTURAL factors in hunger and weight management: 1) culturally learned taste preferences; 2) learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness; 3) _______.
Social bonds helps us to
1) protect us against predators; 2) procure food; 3) reproduce.
protect us against predators
Social bonds helps us to: 1) _______; 2) procure food; 3) reproduce.
procure food
Social bonds helps us to: 1) protect us against predators; 2) _______; 3) reproduce.
reproduce
Social bonds helps us to: 1) protect us against predators; 2) procure food; 3) _______.
wanting to belong
Elements of belongingness: 1) _______; 2) social acceptance; 3) maintaining relationships; 4) ostracism.
social acceptance
Elements of belongingness: 1) wanting to belong; 2) _______; 3) maintaining relationships; 4) ostracism.
maintaining relationships;
Elements of belongingness: 1) wanting to belong; 2) social acceptance; 3) _______ 4) ostracism
ostracism
Elements of belongingness: 1) wanting to belong; 2) social acceptance; 3) maintaining relationships; 4) _______.
social acceptance
A sense of belonging with others that increase our self esteem. Decreased by social segregation.
ostracism
Social exclusion that leads to demoralization, depression and sometimes nasty behavior.
emotion
A response of the whole organism, involving 1) physiological arousal, 2) expressive behaviors, and 3) conscious experience.
physiological activation
Emotions are a mix of: 1) ________; 2) expressive behaviors; 3) conscious experience.
expressive behaviors
Emotions are a mix of: 1) physiological activation; 2) ________; 3) conscious experience.
conscious experience
Emotions are a mix of: 1) physiological activation; 2) expressive behaviors; 3) ________.
physiological activation
Internal component of emotion; the triggering of the sympathetic nervous system.
expressive behaviors
External reaction component of emotion.
conscious experience
The cognitive component of emotion.
sympathetic nervous system
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Two Factor Theory
Theory of emotions that suggests our physiology (arousal) and cognitions create emotions.
Two Factor Theory
Theory of emotion proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer, that to experience emotion we must 1) be physically aroused and 2) cognitively label the arousal.
low
Level of arousal that produces the optimal performance on difficult tasks.
high
Level of arousal that produces the optimal performance on easy tasks.
amygdala
Part of the brain that is activated in emotions of anger and rage. Doesn't involve much processing higher in the cerebral cortex.
anger and fear
Two emotions (in alphabetical order) that are processed in the amygdale because they are linked to survival and don't need higher analysis or interpretation.
cerebral cortex
Part of the brain that processes complex emotions such as boredom, guilt, jealousy, surprise, happiness - which are less directly linked to survival than other emotions.
left
Hemisphere in which the emotion of happiness is processed.
right
Hemisphere in which the emotion of depression is processed.
cognition (appraisal)
Process that interprets arousal into an emotional response.
facial feedback effect
The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger or happiness.
priming
Activating, often unconsciously, association in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive or remember objects or events in certain ways.
Anger
The emotion that is faster to detect from a crowd of faces, through nonverbal communication: anger or happiness.
yes
Do cultures recognize the same emotions from facial expressions?
female
Sex that is better at discerning nonverbal emotions.
female
Sex that is more expressive of emotions.
adaptation-level phenomenon
Our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
relative deprivation
The perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves.
Biological influences on analysis of emotions
1) physiological arousal; 2) evolutionary adaptiveness; 3) response pathways in the brain; 4) spillover effect
physiological arousal
Biological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) _________; 2) evolutionary adaptiveness; 3) response pathways in the brain; 4) spillover effect
evolutionary adaptiveness
Biological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) physiological arousal; 2) _________; 3) response pathways in the brain; 4) spillover effect
response pathways in the brain;
Biological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) physiological arousal; 2) evolutionary adaptiveness; 3) _________; 4) spillover effect.
spillover effect
Biological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) physiological arousal; 2) evolutionary adaptiveness; 3) response pathways in the brain; 4) _________
cognitive labeling
Psychological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) _______; 2) gender differences.
gender differences
Psychological influences on analysis of emotions: 1) cognitive labeling; 2) _______.
expressiveness
Social-cultural influences on analysis of emotions: 1) _______; 2) presence of others; 3) cultural expectations.
presence of others
Social-cultural influences on analysis of emotions: 1) expressiveness; 2) _______; 3) cultural expectations.
cultural expectations
Social-cultural influences on analysis of emotions: 1) expressiveness; 2) presence of others; 3) _______.
spill over
Term for when an arousal response to one event can fuel our response to the next event.
ten emotions
Joy; anger; interest; disgust; surprise; sadness; fear, contempt, shame and guilt
joy and anger
Ten emotions: 1) _______; 2) _______; 3) interest; 4) disgust; 5) surprise; 6) sadness; 7) fear, 8) contempt, 9) shame and 10) guilt.
interest and disgust
Ten emotions: 1) joy; 2) anger; 3) _______; 4) _______; 5) surprise; 6) sadness; 7) fear, 8) contempt, 9) shame and 10) guilt.
surprise and sadness
Ten emotions: 1) joy; 2) anger; 3) interest; 4) disgust; 5) _______; 6) _______; 7) fear, 8) contempt, 9) shame and 10) guilt.
fear and contempt
Ten emotions: 1) joy; 2) anger; 3) interest; 4) disgust; 5) surprise; 6) sadness; 7) _______, 8) _______, 9) shame and 10) guilt.
shame and guilt
Ten emotions: 1) joy; 2) anger; 3) interest; 4) disgust; 5) surprise; 6) sadness; 7) fear, 8) contempt, 9) _______ and 10) _______.
contempt
Three emotions not present in infancy: 1) _______.; 2) shame; 3) guilt.
shame
Three emotions not present in infancy: 1) contempt; 2) _______.; 3) guilt.
guilt
Three emotions not present in infancy: 1) contempt; 2) shame; 3) _______..
catharsis
Emotional release, such as venting (releasing) anger through action or fantasy.
reinforcement
Expressing anger breeds more anger, is habit forming though what process?
perceive world as safer
Six effects of happiness: 1) _______; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) more cooperative; 4) live healthier, 5) more energized and 6) satisfying lives.
make decisions more easily
Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) _______; 3) more cooperative; 4) live healthier, 5) more energized and 6) satisfying lives.
more cooperative
Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) _______.; 4) live healthier, 5) more energized and 6) satisfying lives.
live healthier
Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) more cooperative; 4) _______., 5) more energized and 6) satisfying lives.
more energized
Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) more cooperative; 4) live healthier, 5) _______. and 6) satisfying lives.
satisfying lives
Six effects of happiness: 1) perceive world as safer; 2) make decisions more easily; 3) more cooperative; 4) live healthier, 5) more energized and 6) _______..
happiness
Emotion that is associated with being more willing to help others.
positive psychology
Recent school of psychology that focuses on being grateful for what you have.
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
Our tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
subjective well-being
The self perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measure of objective well-being (such as indicators of physical well being) to evaluate our quality of life.
6 to 7
Number of hours after we wake up that our positive moods takes to rise to a maximum.
same
What is more or less the pattern of a negative mood throughout the day?
affluent
In ________societies, people with more money are happier than people who struggle for their basic needs.
balance
Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to _________.
wealthier, temporarily
Many people in the West believe that if they were ________, they would be happier. However, data suggests that they would only be happy_______.
happier
People in rich countries are ________than people in poor countries.
happy, satisfied
A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people _______. However people who live in poverty or in slums are also _______ with their lives.