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Arts and Humanities
THE COLD WAR
Terms in this set (28)
The Cold War (1945-1991)
was a 50 year struggle between the United States (a democratic nation) and the Soviet Union (a communist nation) after World War II. It is called a this because the United States and the Soviet Union never directly fought each other.
After World War II this country took over the small nations of Eastern Europe and turned them into communist satellites.
This was a term used by Winston Churchill to describe the imaginary line dividing the democratic countries of Western Europe from the communist countries of Eastern Europe.
This was the policy used by the United States in which it attempted to stop the spread of communism. Two examples of containment were:Truman Doctrine, and Marshall Plan.
The United States gave $400 million in economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey to help them defeat communist groups within their countries.
The United States gave $13 billion to the countries of Western Europe to help them rebuild after World War II.
Crisis in Germany
After World War II, Germany was divided into 2 nations. West Germany became a democratic nation. East Germany became a communist nation controlled by the Soviet Union.
Concrete wall built by the Communists around the city of West Berlin to prevent people in East Germany from fleeing to West Germany.
Event in which the United States, Britain, and France flew in supplies to the people of West Berlin after Stalin set up a blockade.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
This was a military alliance between the United States, Canada, and the democratic nations of Western Europe. The nations of this alliance agreed than an attack on one nation in the alliance was considered to be an attack on all of the nations of the alliance.
This was a military alliance between the Soviet Union and the other Communist nations of Eastern Europe.
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
When Hungary (a communist satellite controlled by the Soviet Union) tried to break away from Soviet control, the Soviet Union sent in the army and repressed (ended) the rebellion.
The United States and Soviet Union competed to build up the largest supply of nuclear weapons.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Began when the United States discovered that the Soviet Union was building missile bases in Cuba (a new Communist nation) and pointing nuclear missiles at the United States. The crisis ended when the Soviet Union agreed to remove the missiles. This event is the closest the world has ever come to nuclear war between countries.
Korea and Vietnam
Two nations in East Asia were each divided into 2 separate countries. One side of each country became communist and the other side became democratic.
The Korean War and the Vietnam War results
Today, North Korea is still communist and South Korea is still democratic. After the Vietnam War, all of Vietnam became one united communist nation.
The Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union
Between 1989 and 1991, the Cold War ended and Communism disappeared from Europe.
was the Soviet leader who helped bring an end to Communism in the Soviet Union.
This was a program in which Gorbachev changed the economy of the Soviet Union from a communist/command economy (where the government owns and operates businesses) to a market/capitalist/free enterprise economy (where individuals own and operate businesses.
This was a program in which Gorbachev allowed freedom of speech within the Soviet Union. It was a major step towards democracy in the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin was the first democratically elected president in the history of Russia
The fall of Berlin Wall
(the symbol of the Cold War) was finally torn down. This symbolized the end of the Cold War and the end of Communism. 1990- West Germany and East Germany were reunited to form one democratic country.
Communism in China (1949-Present)
after 22 years of civil war (war within China), China became the second country in the world (after the Soviet Union) to adopt communism.
was the first Communist dictator of China. He gained the support of peasants because he promised to provide them with their own land once the Communists were brought to power.
Great Leap Forward
This was the attempt by Mao to modernize (update) the industrial (factory) and agricultural (farm) production of China. Peasants in China were forced to move onto large government farms. This program was very similar to the Five Year Plans and Collectivization that took place in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. Both Mao and Stalin had a command (or communist) economy in which the government owned businesses and farms and made all economic decisions.
This was a period in China where Mao used violent young Communist soldiers (known as Red Guards) to eliminate all of the opposition (enemies) that he had within China.
was the ruler in China after Mao Zedong. Deng changed the economy of China from a command/communist economy (in which the government owns businesses) to a market/capitalist/free enterprise economy (in which individuals own businesses). This is the system that is largely used in China today.
Tiananmen Square Protests/Massacre (1989)
This was a series of protests where the Chinese peacefully demanded democratic reforms (changes)- They wanted more rights and a say in government. Deng Xiaoping called in the army to repress (end) the protests. Hundreds of Chinese protesters were killed or arrested. This proved that China's government was not willing to make democratic changes.
Current issues in China
China controls the Buddhist region of Tibet. The people of Tibet want independence (self-government). China denies its people human rights (such as freedom of speech and the right to vote). In order to prevent overpopulation (China has 1.3 billion people), the government of China only allows each family to have one child.
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