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54 terms

Teratogens

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Teratogen
Any agent or stubstanch which can cause developmental abnormalities in the embryo or fetus
Teratogenicity
Capabiity of causing develomental abnormality
Types of teratogens
Pharmaceuticals
Alcohol
Smoking
Illegal drugs
Infection
Radiation
Maternal disease
Possible effects of a teratogen
No appaarent consequence
Altered growth
Abnormal growth in an organ system
Carcinogenesis
Embryonic/fetal death
Most notorious teratogen
Thalidomide
Thalidomide
Drug that was first invented and marketed as a sleeping pill and later prescribed topreven miscarriage. It was widely distribued in Europe and Australia
Abnormalities caused by thalidomide
Almost complete absence of limb development. Humerus/radius/ulna severely shortened and hands almost directly attached to shoulder joint
Drug that led to the passage of the FDA Pure Food and Drug Act of 1962
Thalidomide
Current drugs with known teratogenicity
Accutane
Tetracycline
Coumadin
Anti-depressants
Accutane
A vitamin A derivative used totreatesevere acne
Tetracycline
Antibiotic
Coumadin
Drug that inhibits or prevents clotting
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
General term for the collective disorders caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
Clinical signs of FAS
Slowed growth
Mild to severe devoleopmental delays
Behavioral disturbances
Craniofacial abnormalities (eg, microecephaly and visual impairments)
Eyes may fail to develop (severe cases)
Direct effect of smoking during pregnancy
Oxygen delivery to embryo/fetus reduced
Reason oxygen delivered to embryo is reduced when mother smokes during pregnancy
The carbon monoxide in the smoke binds to the iron in hemoglobin ~300 times more strongly than oxygen
Increased risks to the baby from smoking during pregnancy
Miscarriages (spontaneous abortions)
Pre-term babies
Low birth weight
SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
Increased risks to mother from smoking during pregnancy
Abruptio placentae
Placenta previa
Abruptio placentae
Premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus. This causes severe hemorrhage to both mother and fetus
Placenta previa
Abnormal placement of the placenta: Dangerously close to cervix or may completely overlap cervix
Optimal placement of placenta
Upper uterine wall
Risk of placenta close to or overlapping the cervix
Hemorraging
Effects to newborns from mothers smoking marijuana during pregnancy
Tremors
Increased startle reflex
Effects to mothers from using cocaine during pregancy
Vasoconstriction of the uterine smooth muscle
Risks from vasoconstriction of the uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy
Miscarriage
Abruptio placentae
Intrauterine growth retardation
Pre-term birth
Effects to newborns from mothers using cocaine during pregancy
Addiction to cocaine
Consequence of newborns born to mothers that used cocaine or herion during pregnancy
Brain damage
Various neurobehavioral abnormalities
Effects of microbes that infect embryos/fetuses
Micarriage
Premature birth
Congential defects
Growth retardation
Microbes most likely to harm embryos/fetuses in the US
Syphilis
Toxoplamosis
O
Rubella
Cytomegalovirus
Herpes simplex
Measels
Mumps
Effects of ionizing radiation to individuals
Damage to the genetic material of the individual
Ionizing radiation
Very high energy radiation
Types of ionizing radiation
X-rays
Gamma rays
Possible effect of high doses of ionizing radiation to embryos, fetuses, and newborns
Death
Possible effects of lower doses of ionizing radiation on developing babies
Congenital abnormalities
Growth retardation
Effects of radiation during embryonic and fetal development
Increased incidence of cancer during later life
Population that has a greater than normal incidence of childhood and other cancers
Survivors of radiation exposure
Reason ultraviolet radiation is not teratogenic
Does not possess enough energy
Effects of ultraviolet radiation
Sunburn and possible skin cancer for mother, not embryo/fetus
Diseases and conditions of the mother that could affect the developing embryo/fetus
Diabetes mellitus
Anemia
Heart disease
Vitamine deficiency
Most important vitamin for the embryo
Folic acid/folate
Folic acid/folate
Cofactor for DNA synthesis
Risk of folic acid/folate deficiency of mother on the baby
Neural tube defects
Effects of a neural tube that does not close
Spina bifida
Anecephaly
Menogocoele
Spina bifida
Spinal column doesn't close
Anecephaly
Embryo's brain fails to develop
Menigocoele
Meninges protrude from the skin
Period of pregnancy in which exposure to a teratogen is much less damaging
Very early or very late
Possible consequences of exposure to a teratogen during critical periods
Harm or kill embryo/fetus
Reason low to moderate levels of a teratogen may cause no abnormalities to the embryo during the first 2 weeks of life
Still traveling down the fallopian tube to the uterus and has not, yet, embedded into the endometrial wall so there is not a connection between the maternal and fetal circulatory systems
Impact of high levels of teratogen often before the mother realizes she is pregnant
Prenatal death
Embryonic development during weeks 2-5 of pregnancy
Rapid development of central nervous and circulatory systems. Development of eye and limb buds
Impact of teratogens during weeks 2-5 of pregnancy
Major structural abnormalities and/or death
Systems and organs effected by teratogens during weeks 4-7 of pregnancy
Nervous system
Heart
Eyes
Ears
Limbs
Mouth/teeth
Systems and organs effected by teratogens during weeks 6-10 of pregnancy
CNS
Heart
Special senses
Limbs
Digestive system