52 terms

AP US Government and Politics Unit 3 Vocabulary

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501(c)4
Tax-exempt nonprofit social welfare organization
527
Tax-exempt organization to influence elections to public office
AARP
Interest group specializing in the interests of elderly Americans
ACLU
Interest group advocating for civil and individual rights
McCain-Feingold Act
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act-amended the FECA to end the use of soft money
Blanket Primary
Primary with no party lines-people can vote for a candidate regardless of party affiliation
Buckley v. Valeo
Struck down campaign spending limits and upheld limitations on individual contributions set by the FECA
Bush v. Gore
Decided the outcome of the 2000 presidential election
Canvassing
Direct contact with individuals to solicit votes
Christian Coalition
A 501(c)4 that encourages conservative Christians to become involved in local, state, and federal politics
Closed Primary
Only voters registered for the party holding the primary may vote
Dark Money
Funds given to nonprofits (which can receive unlimited donations from corporations) to spend on elections
Direct Primary
Candidates are nominated by direct vote of the people
Equal Time Rule
US radio and television must provide equal opportunity to any opposing political candidates who request it
Federal Communications Commission
Regulates interstate and international communications
Federal Elections Campaign Act
FECA; primary US federal law regulating political campaign spending
FEC
Independent regulatory agency created to administer and enforce the statute that governs the financing of federal elections
Federal Matching Funds
Money a presidential candidate is given by the federal government to match the money they have raised personally
Get-Out-The-Vote Campaigning
Activities that the campaign performs to turn voters out on Election Day
Grassroots Lobbying
An approach that separates itself from direct lobbying through the act of asking the general public to contact public officials
Hard Money
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed
Independent Expenditure
A political campaign communication that expressly advocates for the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate that is not made in cooperation with that candidate
Interest Group
A group that is determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected
Iowa Caucus
The first primary in the US primary elections
Libel
A written false statement that is damaging to a person's reputation
Linkage Institutions
A structure within society that connects people to the government
MoveOn.org
A website dedicated to the interests of the Democratic Party
Muckraker
Reform-minded American journalists who write largely for all popular magazines; term coined in Progressive Era
NAACP
Founded in 1909 to end segregation and discrimination, oppose racial discrimination, and gain civil rights for African Americans
National Committee
Delegates who run party affairs between national conventions
National Convention
A meeting of party delegates held once every four years
NEA
National Education Association-union for educational employees; protects rights of public school/college/university teachers, faculty and support staff, and retired educators
New Hampshire Primary
Votes alongside Iowa as the first primary state in the US primary elections
Open Primary
A primary in which any registered voter may vote, but may only vote for members of one party
PAC
A private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns
Patronage
Granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
Pentagon Papers
Secret government documents published in 1971; revealed that the US government had misled Americans about the Vietnam War
Plurality Win
An election in which the winner receives the greatest number, but less than half, of the votes
Pollster
Someone who conducts surveys of public opinion
Presidential Coattails
The tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election.
Print v. Broadcast Media Rules
Print is largely unregulated
Broadcast is regulated by the FCC
Prior Restraint
Censorship imposed, usually by a government, on expression before the expression actually takes place
Public Funds
Qualified Presidential candidates receive federal government funds to pay for the valid expenses of their political campaigns in both the primary and general elections
Ralph Nader
An American political activist, as well as an author, lecturer, and attorney. Areas of particular concern to Nader include consumer protection, humanitarianism, environmentalism, and democratic government
Runoff Primary
A second primary election held in some states to determine which of the top two candidates in the first primary will be awarded the party nomination for an office
Simple Majority Win
Less than half of the total votes but more than the minimum required to win
Soft Money
A contribution to a political party that is not accounted as going to a particular candidate, thus avoiding various legal limitations
Supermajority
A supermajority, or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one half used for majority
Superdelegates
An unelected delegate who is free to support any candidate for the presidential nomination at the party's national convention
Super-PACs
Organizations that can raise unlimited funds from individuals, corporations, and other groups to support or defeat a political candidate
Valence Issues
Issues that everyone is generally in favor of or against, but parties have different views on how to handle them
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration
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