Organizational Behavior Exam 4 Material
Terms in this set (120)
The influence to direct and coordinate the activities of group members to meet a goal.
The planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively.
Is a process which involves the use of non coercive influence to change behavior, where management uses rewards and punishments.
The set of characteristics attributed to someone who is perceived to use influence successfully.
The ability to affect the perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, motivation, and/or behavior of others.
Characteristics of a Good Leader
Trait Theories of Leadership
Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leader from non-leaders.
Trait Theories of Leadership: Leadership Traits
6. Risk Taker
7. Emotional Intelligence
Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
Leadership is inherent, so we must identify the leader based on his or her traits.
Leadership is a skill set that can be taught to anyone, so we must identify the proper behaviors to teach potential leaders.
Behavioral Approaches to Leadership
Attempts to identify behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from non-leaders.
Early Studies in Behavioral Approaches to Leadership
1. The Michigan Studies
2. The Ohio State Studies
3. The Leadership Grid
Early Behavioral Approaches to Leadership: The Michigan Studies
Results indicated two fundamental leader behaviors:
1. Job-centered leader behavior
2. Employee-centered leader behavior
Job-Centered Leader Behavior
Paying close attention to the work of subordinates, explaining work procedures, and demonstrating a strong interest in performance; Also referred to as production oriented behavior
Employee-Centered Leader Behavior
Emphasizes interpersonal relationships.
Attempting to build effective work groups with high performance goals; Also referred to as employee oriented behavior.
Early Behavioral Approaches to Leadership: The Ohio State Studies
Defined two independent dimensions of leadership:
1. Leader consideration behaviors
2. Leader initiating-structure behaviors
Leadership Consideration Behaviors
Showing concern for subordinates' feelings and respecting subordinates' ideas.
Leader Initiating-Structure Behaviors
Clearly defining and structuring leader-subordinate roles such that subordinates know what is expected of them.
Important Behavioral Studies: University of Iowa
Found three key dimensions of leader behavior:
1. Democratic Style
2. Autocratic Style
3. Laissez-fair Style
Involving subordinates, delegating authority, and encouraging participation.
Dictating work methods, centralizing decision making, and limiting participation.
Giving group freedom to make decisions and complete work.
Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid
Draws on both studies to assess leadership style.
-Concern for People
-Concern for Production
Style is determined by the position on the graph.
Concern for People
Consideration and employee orientation.
Concern for Production
Initiating structure and production-orientation.
About the environment in which the leader exists.
Deals with the environment aspect of leadership effectiveness studies.
Situational Leadership Model
Assume that appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to another situation.
Whether or not a manager is an effective leader is the result of the interplay between what the manager is like, what he does, and the situation in which leadership takes place
Effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and the situation.
For effective leadership: must change to a leader who fits the situation or change the situational variables to fit the current leader.
House's Path-Goal Theory
A contingency model of leadership proposing that effective leaders can motivate subordinates by using clarified reward goals.
Assumes that leaders affect subordinates' performance by clarifying the behaviors that will lead to desired rewards.
Types of Behaviors:
Vroom's Decision Tree Approach
Vroom, Yetton, Jago
Attempts to prescribe how much participation subordinates should be allowed in making decisions.
-Situational characteristics determine the degree to which subordinates should be encouraged to participate in decision making.
-Managers can adopt the endpoint decision styles.
Vroom's Decision Tree Approach: Endpoint Decision Styles for Managers
3. Consult Individuals
4. Consult Group
5. Facilitate Group
Endpoint Decision Styles for Managers: Decide
Manager makes the decision alone.
Endpoint Decision Styles for Managers: Delegate
Manager allows the group to define for itself the exact nature and parameters of the problem and to then develop a solution.
Endpoint Decision Styles for Managers: Consult Individuals
Manager presents the program to group members individually, obtains their suggestions, and then makes the decision.
Endpoint Decision Styles for Managers: Consult Group
Manager presents the problem to group members at a meeting, gets their suggestions, and then makes the decision.
Endpoint Decision Styles for Managers: Facilitate Group
Manager presents the problem to the group at a meeting, defines the problem and its boundaries, and then facilitates group member discussion as members make the decision.
Contemporary Situational Theories
New situational theories have evolved from theories of the past:
-The Leader-Member Exchange Model
-The Hersey and Blanchard Model
The Leader-Member Exchange Model
Green and Dansereau
Suggests that leaders form unique independent relationships with each of their subordinates
Each superior-subordinate pair is termed a "vertical dyad."
Supervisors establish a close working relationship with a small number of trusted subordinates referred to as the "in-group."
Subordinates who are not a part of the "in-group" are called the "out-group", and they receive less of the supervisor's time and attention.
The Hersey and Blanchard Model
Suggests that leader behaviors should vary in response to the 'readiness' of followers.
-As follower readiness Like subordinate's degree of motivation, competence, experience, and interest in accepting responsibility.
-Followers can accept or reject the leader.
-Effectiveness depends on the followers' response to the leader's actions.
Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Use rewards and punishments to influence.
Inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization; they can have a profound and extraordinary effect on followers.
A type of transformational leader who is enthusiastic, self-confident and whose personalities and actions influence people to behave in certain ways.
1. Contingent Reward
2. Management by Exception
Transactional Leaders: Contingent Reward
Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments.
Transactional Leaders: Management by Exception
Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.
1. Idealized Influence
3. Intellectual Stimulation
4. Individualized Consideration
Transformational Leaders: Idealized Influence
Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust.
Transformational Leaders: Inspiration
Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important issues simply.
Transformational Leaders: Intellectual Stimulation
Promotes intelligence, rationality, and problem solving.
Transformational Leaders: Individualized Consideration
Gives personal attention, coaches, advises.
Alternatives to Leadership
1. Leadership Substitutes
2. Leadership Neutralizers
Something that takes the place of leadership.
Something that can cancel out leadership.
-lack of follower dedication/commitment
-inability of the followers
Leaders as Coaches or Mentors
Helps select team members and other new employees.
Provides general direction.
Helps train/develop the team and member skills.
Helps acquire information/resources.
Helps resolve conflict and mediate disputes.
Gender and Leadership
Stereotyping of styles is no longer valid.
Women tend to be more democratic decision makers; men more autocratic.
Women may have stronger interpersonal skills.
Women may confront more opposition and therefore involve others in decision making to reduce conflict.
Culture encompasses both international differences and diversity-based differences within one culture.
1. Strategic Leadership
2. Ethical Leadership
3. Virtual Leadership
Requires that leaders be capable of:
1. Understanding the complexities of both the organization and its environment.
2. Leading change in the organization to achieve and maintain a superior alignment between the organization and its environment.
Strategic Leadership: Managerial Requirements
Encompassing understanding of the organization.
Firm grasp of the organization's environment.
Awareness of firm's alignment with the environment.
Ability to improve the alignment.
1. Increasing pressure for high ethical standards for leadership positions.
2. Increasing pressure to hold leaders accountable for their actions.
3. Increasing environmental pressure for stronger corporate governance models.
Virtual Leadership Challenges
Changes in leadership and mentoring as in-person contact is replaced by virtual contact.
Less nonverbal communication.
Increasing importance of e-mail's role in conveying appreciation, reinforcement, and constructive feedback.
Face-to-face leadership skills are replaced with non face-to-face leadership skills.
A right whose legitimacy is based on authority figure's position in the organization, in the organization. It goes with the job.
An individual's ability to influence decisions.
Acceptance Theory of Authority
A manager's authority depends on the subordinates acceptance of the authority.
Reasons for Lack of Acceptance
1. No respect of authority
2. No respect for individual in authority
3. Over emphasis of self worth
4. Social learning
5. Dysfunctional reward system
The potential ability for a person or group to exercise control over another person or group.
The ability to affect the perceptions, attitudes, or behaviors of others.
A direct and intentional effort to enhance your image in the eyes of others.
5 Bases of Power
1. Legitimate Power
2. Reward Power
3. Coercive Power
4. Expert Power
5. Referent Power
Power that is granted by virtue of one's position in the organization.
Power that exists when one person controls rewards that another person values.
Power that exists when one person has the ability to punish or physically or psychologically harm someone else.
Power that exists when one person controls information that is valuable to someone else.
Power that exists when one person wants to be like or imitates someone else.
Power resides in the position, regardless of who is filling that position.
Power resides in the person, regardless of the position being filled.
Activities carried out by people to acquire, enhance, and use power and other resources to obtain their desired outcomes.
A situation in which a task or a person's
perspective is adversely in opposition to the perspective
of another individual, resulting in feelings of discomfort
Is inevitable given the wide range of goals for the different stakeholders in the organization.
Managers goal should be to manage it, not eliminate it.
Sources of Conflict
1. Different goals and time horizons.
2. Overlapping Authority
3. Different Evaluation or Reward Systems
4. Scarce Resources
5. Status Inconsistencies
6. Organization Justice
7. Organizational Interdependence
Two or more managers claim authority for the same activities which leads to conflict between the managers and workers.
Different Evaluation or Reward Systems
A group is rewarded for achieving a goal, but another interdependent group is rewarded for achieving a goal that conflicts with the first group.
Managers can come into conflict over the allocation of _________ _____________.
Some individuals and groups have a higher organizational status than others, leading to conflict with lower status groups.
The perception of people in an organization regarding fairness.
Individual's perceptions of the fairness of the outcomes of a decision.
Individual's perceptions of the fairness of the procedures used to make a decision.
Individual's perceptions of the degree of fairness in how they are treated by other in the organization.
Individual's perceptions of the fairness of the information communicated and used by the organization in making decisions.
Conflict is often caused by the need for organizational interdependence.
Exists when group members make separate and independent contributions to group performance.
Exists when group members must perform specific tasks in a predetermined order.
Exists when the work performed by each group member is fully dependent on the work performed by other group members.
The creation and constructive use of conflict by a manager.
Managed effort to reduce or eliminate harmful conflict.
5 Types of Reactions to Conflict
Two parties try to ignore the problem and do nothing to resolve the disagreement.
One party simply gives in to the other party.
Each party tries to maximize its own gain and has little interest in understanding the other's position.
Each party is concerned about not only their goal accomplishment but also the goal accomplishment of the other party and is willing to engage in a give-and-take exchange to reach a reasonable solution.
Parties try to satisfy their goals without making concessions by coming up with a new way to resolve their differences that leaves them both better off.
Conflict Reaction Differentiation
1. Importance of each party's goals to that party.
2. Compatibility of each party's goals to the goals of the other party.
Managerial Hierarchy-Chain of Command
Rules and Procedures-Bureaucracy
Communication-Clarification and Feedback
Due process for complainant.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
The process in which two or more parties reach agreement on an issue even though they have different preferences regarding that issue.
Impartial individual with expertise in handling conflicts.
Facilitates negotiations but no authority to impose a solution.
Facilitates negotiations but can also impose what he/she thinks is a fair solution to a conflict that both parties are obligated to abide by.
A goal of the overall organization and is more important to the well-being of the organization and its members than the more specific goals of the conflicting parties.
Parties perceive that they have a "fixed pie" of resources that can be divided.
Take a competitive adversarial stance; a bigger piece of pie for you means a smaller piece of pie for others.
Do not care if their interpersonal relationship is damaged by their competitive negotiation because they don't see any need to interact in the future.
Parties perceive that they might be able to increase the resource pie by trying to come up with a creative solution to the conflict.
View the conflict as a win-win situation in which both parties can gain.
Handled through collaboration or compromise.
Seaton's Suggestions for Conflict Resolution
1. Make sure you truly understand the issues which have led to the conflict.
2. Isolate the conflicting issues from all other perspectives,
prejudices, bias, past experiences, etc.
3. Determine if the conflicting issues are really that important (what are the consequences).
4. Openly communicate during all stages of the conflict.
5. Listen and consider the arguments of others.
6. Strive toward reaching a positive outcome to the conflict, not a personal victory.
7. ALWAYS, ALWAYS BE CONSISTENT!!!!!!!!!!!!!
An attack directed at someone at work or on duty.
Verbal assault, harassment, threats, bullying, physical assaults, assaults with weapons, criminal activity
4 Leading Causes of Workplace Violence
1. Criminal Activity
2. Mental Illness
3. Relationships (inside & outside organization)
4. Organizational Stressors
Those things that indicate a problem may occur.
The disposition to experience anger over time and situations.
Overtly react or hold within.
Lack of Control
Individuals feel that they have no control over decisions, events, or destiny in their lives within the context.
An unpleasant state of inner turmoil, a subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over something unlikely to happen.
Distributive, procedural and interactional injustice often leads to aggressive behavior.
Anger in the Workplace
1. Trait Anger
2. Coping Responses
3. Lack of Control
The use of superior strength or influence to intimidate, typically to force him or her to do what on wants.
The tendency of individuals or groups to use persistent aggressive or unreasonable behavior against a co-worker or subordinate.
Occupational Safety and Health Act's General Duty Clause
Each employer shall furnish to each or his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.
Includes hazards caused by organizational: property, employees, customers, vendors or any other hazard that the organizational is or should be aware of.
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