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Chapter 5: An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China, 753 B.C.E.-600 C.E.

Chapter 5
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The most essential activity in early Rome was...
farming
In Roman families, the authority figure was the oldest male. This situation is known as...
rule by the paterfamilias
Unlike the Greeks, the Romans...
granted Roman citizenship to conquered people
One of the major impacts of the pax romana was...
the facilitation of trade
One of the most enduring consequences of the Roman Empire was...
the spread of the Latin language
The Romans originally viewed Christians negatively because...
their monotheism kept them from worshipping the Roman emperor
As the western Roman Empire collapsed in the 500s, Rome...
remained the locus of the Christian church
By the early Han dynasty, China's population had...
stabilized and stopped growing due to the warfare of the time
Like Rome, the Qin and Han...
faced similar problems with the defense of the empire, had to delegate autonomy to local officials, and built thousands of miles of roads to facilitate trade
Qin and Han emperors had to ally themselves with the gentry as one strategy to weaken the rural aristocrats. In China, the gentry were...
the class of prosperous and educated families just below the aristocrats
Which of the following is true of the Han collapse?
(A) Nomadic bands raided
(B) Official corruption spread
(C) Peasants uprisings increased
(D) All of the above
D) All of the above
Which of the following is true of Rome and the Han dynasty?
(A) Buddhism was more easily reconciled with the Han than Christianity was with Rome
(B) Both Rome and Han were governed by ethnic minorities
(C) Rome and Han arrives were made up of mercenary soldiers
(D) Both Rome and Han used the idea of the Mandate of Heaven
(B) Both Rome and Han were governed by ethnic minorities
Rome
Began its history as a kingdom, traditionally founded in 753 BCE.; Italian city-state among many, began to dominate and conquer its neighbors early in its history.
What constitutes the history of Rome's monarchy?
A total of seven kings, starting with Romulus and ending with Tarquin the Proud
What led to the foundlings of the Republic in Rome?
In 507 BCE a group of noblemen led by Brutus "the Liberator" deposed Tarquin and founded the Republic.
Res publica
The "thing of the public" or "public possession"
What was the Republic a mix of?
A mixture of democracy and oligarchy.
What were laws officially recored as after the Res publica was founded in Rome?
The Twelve Tables
Senate
Part of the res publica; the main governing body, from whose ranks officials were elected to public office.
What/Whom was the constant tension between in Rome?
there was constant tension between the upper class (the Patricians) and the lower class (the Plebeians). This tension would eventually contribute to the fall of the Republic.
What contributed to the fall of the Republic?
The tension between the Patricians and the Plebians
What did the Roman army say was a result of their constant expansion?
The Romans usually claimed that their expansion was out of self-defense, but each new conquest would then need defending.
How was the Roman empire army different from many other armies?
The Roman army utilized new tactics that made it more flexible than its contemporaries' forces, and the citizens who were required to serve in the army were willing to endure harsh discipline.
How far did Rome expand and conquest land by 290 BCE?
Rome extended its "protection" over nearly all of Italy.
Who did Rome wage war against between 264 and 146?
Against Carthage and the Hellenistic kingdoms
Second Punic War
(Rome with Carthage) Nearly saw the destruction of Rome itself as Hannibal Barca defeated many Roman armies.
How did Rome's constant warfare help the Roman army?
Helped to develop the Roman military to unprecedented levels of strength.
Describe the fall of the Republic.
The Senate obstructs any attempt to share power (and land); the people (and troops) look elsewhere for leadership.
Where did more power fall as a result of the fall of the Republic?
More and more power falls into the hands of Rome's greatest generals.
Describe how power fell into the hands of many generals following the fall of the Republic in Rome.
Gaius Marius gains the fanatical loyalty of his troops.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla leads the first march on Rome by a Roman army, killing anyone who does not support him.
Who/What fought for power and glory as a result of the fall of the Republic in Rome?
Great generals and politicians fight for power and glory.
Describe how great generals and politicians fought for power and glory after the fall of the Republic.
Julius Caesar conquers Gaul before defeating Pompeius Magnus in a civil war.
How did Julius Caesar lose eventual power?
Caesar is assassinated; his adopted son Octavian becomes the last man standing after a series of bloody conflicts.
How did the defeat of the Cimbri benefit Rome?
It helped launch Marius to prominence, and produced veterans who were eager to gain land of their own.
Octavian
Now called Augustus who founded the Principate
Does Octavian/Augustus eventually become king?
Remembering his adopted father's fate, he is careful not to appear as a king (even though he wields king-like power) but instead as the most prominent citizen among equals.
Because Octavian/Augustus was not considered the king, what troubles did this cause in Rome's monarchy?
There was no set way to transfer power after his death; as the years go on the throne is seized by the strongest military commanders.
What were some emperors called after their death if they ruled very well?
Some emperors are officially deified (regarded as gods) after they die; cults of the living emperor are cultivated to increase loyalty to him.
Where was Rome's empire's administration carried out?
While about 80% of the Empire's population lives in the country, its administration was carried out in cities.
What was Rome's total population?
Some estimates put the population of Rome at upwards of one million inhabitants.
What was a benefit of Rome's location?
The Empire connects many different locations.
Pax Romana
Political stability within the empire, when it exists that made trade easier
Romanization
Trade spreads Roman culture and influence even beyond the Empire's borders
Why was the 3rd century CE rough for Rome?
A succession of emperors died violently while trying to hold on to power.
Civil war, economic crises, outside pressure from hostile forces, and the inefficiency of the Roman governmental systems all weakened the Empire.
Emperor Diocletian
Recognized that the Empire was too big for any one man to rule in the 3rd century.
What did Diocletian divide Rome into?
He divided it into eastern and western halves, each headed by an "augustus" (the head emperor) and a "caesar" (his 2nd in command).
How did Diocletian attempt to stabalize Rome's economy?
He attempted to stabilize the economy by fixing the prices of key commodities and keeping people in essential jobs (whether they liked it or not.)
How did Diocletian lose his rule as king of Rome's empire?
He didn't lose his rule, but instead resigned and passed rule of the empire on to others.
What happened almost immediately after Diocletian resigned and passed on his empire onto other?
Civil war (again): The four rulers chosen by Diocletian fought almost immediately; Constantine crushes his rivals and reunites the empire.
During the civil wars of Rome, how did Constantinople contribute to Rome?
Constantine movds the capital from Rome to Constantinople, however; the east will remain strong for centuries (we sometimes call it the Byzantine Empire).
How did the west fall apart in Rome?
The west fell apart in 476 CE as barbarian tribes founded their own kingdoms in the economic wasteland that Rome had become.
Describe Christianity in Rome.
Christianity initially grew slowly.
It was often popular among disenfranchised groups due to its emphasis on individual respect regardless of social standing.
It eventually accumulated a hierarchy similar to that of the Empire.
What was a disadvantage of the rise of Christianity in Rome?
Christians were sometimes persecuted by the state.
Why were Christians sometimes persecuted by the state?
This was due mainly to the unwillingness of Christians to honor deified emperors as gods and its departure from traditional Roman religion.
What eventually became the official religion of the Roman Empire?
CHRISTIANITY YAY
Who was the first emperor to convert to Christianity in Rome?
Constantine
What brought the warring states period to an end?
It was brought to an end by the military victories of Qin.
How was the Qin victorious in bringing the warring states period to an end?
Qin was victorious in large part because as a frontier state it was accustomed to defending itself against outside "barbarian" peoples.
What was an effect of the adoption of Legalism in the Qin dynasty?
It exploited the human and natural resources of the kingdom.
Shi Huangdi
The ambitious young king (Qin), who renamed himself Shi Huangdi, was ruthless in his pursuit of victory.
In the interesting of securing his borders, what did Shi Huangdi attack?
Shi Huangdi attacked the nomadic tribes to the north; this forced them to unite as the Xiongnu Confederacy.
What made the Qin regime unpopular?
Conscription into work forces and the military, forced relocation, and strict laws
What linked the Chinese world together in relation to the Qin dynasty?
Standard laws, currency, and writing was imposed, adding to Chinese unity.
Roads and canal systems
What happened after the death of Shi Huagndi?
Popular uprisings brought an end to Qin rule; the Han seized power instead.
Gaozu
The first Han emperor who repealed many of the harsher Qin laws and restored a feudal-style government.
What was very limited to Gaozu during his rule and why?
Because the economy was damaged, Gaozu had limited resources available to him.
What was Gaozu forced to send to northern nomads in exchange for peace?
He was forced to send tribute to northern nomads in exchange for peace.
What did Gaozu try to improve of the Han dynasty during his rule?
Steps were taken to improve agriculture; grain surpluses were kept and prices were monitored.
What often weakened the Han government?
Palace rivalries and infighting often weakened the government, but early Han rulers kept power in their own hands rather than those of the nobles.
Emperor Wu
Expanded Chinese power
Describe Emperor Wu's contribution to the Han dynasty.
Military expansion as far as northern Vietnam in the south and Korea in the north occurred, and after a long, costly war the Xiongnu nomads were destroyed.
What did westward expansion of the Han dynasty in China help?
Helped create what would become the Silk Road trading network.
What was the official ideology of the Han empire?
Modified Confucianism was adopted as the official ideology of the empire rather than Legalism.
What did the Han dynasty's social hierarchy consist of?
Three main in social classes:
The scholar-gentry
Ordinary, but free, citizens
The underclass
Describe the scholar-gentry class of the Han dynasty.
Were men who held positions in the government bureaucracy; while often held by wealthy families, these were open to any male who could perform well on the requisite exams.
Describe the ordinary, but free, citizens class of the Han dynasty.
Were mostly peasants, who often owned land. They were required to work a set number of days on public works and were eligible to be drafted into the army.
Describe the underclass class of the Han dynasty.
Consisted of many groups, including non-Han Chinese on the fringes of the empire. While slavery did exist in the Han Empire (the Qin had unsuccessfully tried to eradicate it), it was much more rare than in Roman society.
What rights did women have in the Han dynasty in China?
While upper-class women often were educated in the arts, writing, and music, women at all social levels remained subordinate to men.
Sima Qian
China's first historical writing was produced by him
Who was China's first historical writing produced by?
Sima Qian
What was education's role in the Han dynasty?
Poetry, literature, mathematics, geography, and astronomy were all valued and their study flourished.
Describe the new technology developed during the Han dynasty.
Water mills, paper; extensive systems of roads were built to connect the far-flung regions of the empire.
What was the official ideology of the Han dynasty? What did this often lead to?
Confucianism was the official ideology; charismatic Daoist teachers sometimes led rebellions against the government.
What religion began to spread to the Han dynasty around the 1st century CE? Where did this religion originate?
Buddhism began to spread into China around the 1st Century CE; it had originated in northern India in the 5th Century BCE.
What was the cause of the fall of the Han dynasty?
The Han empire had long borders and aggressive nomadic neighbors; the expense of protecting their frontiers became prohibitively expensive; Civil war erupted leading it to its ultimate fall
What was later undone of previous rulers of the Han just before its collapse?
While early rulers had reduced the strength of the nobility, this was undone later and local lords were able to control the peasants in their areas.
What destabilized many parts of the Han empire?
Official corruption and peasant uprisings dest
How did the Han dynasty's military lack just before the fall of the empire?
A breakdown in the system of military conscription forced the government to hire foreign soldiers and officers whose loyalty was questionable.