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15 terms

Rocks, Minerals, & Soils

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mineral
solid object found in nature that has never been alive
hardness
a measure of how difficult it is for a mineral to be scratched
rock
a naturally formed solid made of one or more minerals
igneous rock
rock that was once melted and then cooled and hardened
sedimentary rock
rock made when materials settle into layers and get squeezed until they harden into rock
metamorphic rock
rock that has been changed by heat or pressure
humus
the part of soil made up of broken down pieces of dead plants and animals
sand
soil with grains of rock that you can see with your eyes alone
silt
soil with grains of rock that are too small to see with your eyes alone
clay
soil with very, very tiny grains of rock (holds water)
loam
soil that is a mixture of humus, sand, silt, and clay
weathering
the breaking down of rock into smaller pieces
erosion
the movement of weathered rock and soil
fossil
the hardened remains of a plant or an animal that lived long ago
extinct
describes a kind of living thing that is no longer found on Earth