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solid object found in nature that has never been alive


a measure of how difficult it is for a mineral to be scratched


a naturally formed solid made of one or more minerals

igneous rock

rock that was once melted and then cooled and hardened

sedimentary rock

rock made when materials settle into layers and get squeezed until they harden into rock

metamorphic rock

rock that has been changed by heat or pressure


the part of soil made up of broken down pieces of dead plants and animals


soil with grains of rock that you can see with your eyes alone


soil with grains of rock that are too small to see with your eyes alone


soil with very, very tiny grains of rock (holds water)


soil that is a mixture of humus, sand, silt, and clay


the breaking down of rock into smaller pieces


the movement of weathered rock and soil


the hardened remains of a plant or an animal that lived long ago


describes a kind of living thing that is no longer found on Earth

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