a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
ex. "Romeo and Juliet"
["Thou counterfeit'st a bark, a sea, a wind;
For still thy eyes, which I may call the sea,
Do ebb and flow with tears; the bark thy body is,
Sailing in this salt flood; the winds, thy sighs;
Who, raging with thy tears, and they with them,
Without a sudden calm, will overset
Thy tempest-tossed body."]
auditory: pertains to sounds, noises, music, or the sense of hearing
ex. screaming, shouting
gustatory: pertains to flavors or the sense of taste
ex. juicy, sweet
olfactory: pertains to odors, scents, or the sense of smell
ex. whiff, aroma
tactile: relates to the sense of touch
ex. soft, rough
visual: creates visual representation of ideas in our minds; mental pictures
ex. dark, dim
rhyme that occurs within a single line of verse, or between internal phrases across multiple lines
ex. "The Raven"
[Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door.....]
a verse, a line, a set, or a group of some lines that appears at the end of stanza, or appears where a poem divides into different sections
ex. "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night"
[Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light...
And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.]
the Shakespearean or English sonnet is arranged as three quatrains and a final couplet, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg
ex. "Sonnet I"
[From fairest creatures we desire increase,
That thereby beauty's rose might never die,
But as the riper should by time decease,
His tender heir might bear his memory:
But thou contracted to thine own bright eyes,
Feed'st thy light's flame with self-substantial fuel,
Making a famine where abundance lies,
Thy self thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel:
Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament,
And only herald to the gaudy spring,
Within thine own bud buriest thy content,
And, tender churl, mak'st waste in niggarding:
Pity the world, or else this glutton be,
To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee.]