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41 terms

ch 2 vocab Biology

Prentice Hall Biology voc ch 2
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atom
basic unit of matter
nucleus
center of an atom, contains protons and neutrons
electron
negatively charged subatomic particle located outside the nucleus.
element
a form of matter that contains only one kind of atom
isotope
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.
compound
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
ionic bond
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
ion
positively or negatively charged atom
covalent bond
bond whose electrons are shared between atoms
molecule
the smallest unit of most compounds
van der Waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
cohesion
an attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
attraction between molecules of different substances
mixture
a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
solution
mixture where all components are evenly distributed
solvent
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
solute
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
suspension
mixture of water and nondissolved materials
pH scale
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution: ranges from 0-14
acid
compound that forms hydrogen ions in solution
base
compund that produces hydroxide ions in solutions
buffer
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp sudden changes in pH
monomer
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
carbohydrate
key source of energy; organic compunds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
monosaccharide
single sugar molecule (monomer)
polysaccharide
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
lipid
macromolecules made of carbon and hydrogen, fats, oils, and waxes
nucleic acid
macromolecule containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
nucleotide
monomer of a nucleic acid made of a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
ribonucleic acid
(RNA) single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair, and to make enzymes
amino acid
basic building block for protein compound with an amino group (−NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (−COOH) on the other end
chemical reaction
a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
reactant
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
product
the elements or compounds that are produced by a chemical reaction
activation energy
the energy that is needed to get a reaction started
catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzyme
proteins that act as a cell's biological catalysts
substrate
The reactants of an enzyme catalyzed reaction