Human ecology final week 8

Nitrogen (78%); oxygen (21%); trace gases (1%)
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 44
Terms in this set (44)
pHConcentration of hydrogen ions (H+)Area sensitivityDepends on geology; type of rock --> type of soilBuffering capacityAbility to neutralize acid deposition; if rock/soil pH > 7, can counteract acidic rain; if rock/soil pH < 7, it cannot counteract acidic rainOverall effects of acid rainWeaken or kill aquatic organisms; weaken or kill plants; acidify lakes permanently; leach soil nutrients; mobilize toxic elementsLeachDetach and dissolve so that leaves area; calcium, magnesiumMobilize toxic elementsMakes it easy to absorb in water and then enter organisms; aluminum, mercury, cadmiumLake effects of acid rainKills organisms at/near base food web; harms fish physiologyEcosystem effects of acid rainNutrients leached; toxic elements mobilized; roots/leaves damaged; weakens/kills mycorrhizaeMycorrhizaeHelps plants absorb nutrients; helps plants tolerate stressForest effects of acid rainInteracting impacts; plants more vulnerable to natural factors (temperature/precipitation; insects; disease); plants more vulnerable to human factors (other pollutants); ecosystem effects (alters food webs; alters hydrologic cycle)Long-term effects of acid rainLake acidification - essentially permanent; forest ecosystem - increasingly serious; recovery time - decades; starts only after pollution is controlledGreenhouse effectLight from sun absorbed by ground; reradiated as infrared radiation (heat energy); certain gases trap infrared radiation; effect - retention of heat energy in atmosphereWater vapor (H2O)Sources - natural, human; changes in hydrologic cycle from burning fossil fuels, building reservoirsCarbon Dioxide (CO2)Sources - natural, human; 70% burning fossil fuels, 30% deforestationMethane (CH4)Sources - natural, human; increased decomposition in landfills, from deforestation, in livestock digestion, melting permafrostChlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)Sources - human only; refrigerantsNitrous oxide (N2O)Sources - natural, human; breakdown of fertilizing; burning fossil fuelsHuman alterations to carbon slow cycleLithosphere sink - burn fossil fuels; convert C sinks to atmosphere and hydrosphere sourcesHuman alterations to carbon fast cycleBiosphere sink - deforestation, other land conversion; increase in decomposition and erosion of exposed lithosphere; some shifts to a new storage site - oceansHuman alterations to carbon cycle resultsClimate change, ocean acidificationIncreased temperatures and incidence of heat wavesEvidence for global warming; 2007 was the warmest year worldwide over the past 125 years; previously the warmest year was 2005Melting of glaciers and polar iceEvidence for global warming; Arctic sea summer ice has declined by 15% in area over the past 25 years; since 1850, glaciers in the European Alps have disappeared from more than 30% - 40% of their former rangeRising sea levelsEvidence for global warming; since 1938, 1/3 of the coastal marshes in a wildlife refuge in Chesapeake Bay have been submerged by rising seawaterEarlier flowering of plantsEvidence for global warming; 2/3 of plant species are now flowering earlier than they did several decades agoEarlier spring activityEvidence for global warming; 1/3 of English birds are now laying eggs earlier in the year than they did 30 years ago, and oak trees are now leafing out earlier than they did 40 years agoShifts in species rangeEvidence for global warming; 2/3 of European butterfly species studied are now found farther north by 35 to 250 km than recorded several decades agoPopulation declinesEvidence for global warming; Adelie penguin populations have declined over the past 25 years as their Antarctic sea ice habitats melts awayJet streamArctic-warming-induced wavy jet stream hypothesis; rapid Arctic warming causes lesser temperature differences between north polar and temperate zones; causes weaker west-to-east jet stream winds; causes wavier jet stream that moves slowerJet stream resultUnusual temperatures on both sides of wave, warmer in west and colder in east; warmer ocean temps, so more snow in eastern statesFalse balanceA journalism term referring to presenting issues in which there is an overwhelming consensus for one conclusion in a way that makes it seem as if there are two fairly equal contrary viewpoints or two spokespeople of equal credabilityImpact of climate change on oceansWarmer waters; causes bleaching; coral expels zooanthellae; more acidic (lower pH); decreasing oxygen levelsArgument for acting nowWill solve other, definite problems; reduce other air pollutants (acidic deposition, smog); reduce dependency on dirty fuels; shift to energy conservation and renewable sources; restore lost ecosystem free servicesCumulative ecosystem effectEven if stop today, long time for natural processes to aid recoveryCompeting ratesRate implementing pollution control << rate of leaching