Biology 111 Final Exam

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Why must cells be small?
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Terms in this set (182)
Cellulose layer that makes up outer part of a plant cellcell wallPhospholipid bilayer surrounding cytoplasm/cytosolcell membraneWhere proteins are actually built in a cellribosomeModifies and packages proteins for export from cellgolgiManufactures lipids and serves as a detox centersmooth ERScaffolding of microtubules that provides internal support and allows movement of organellescytoskeletonProduces peroxide that help polypeptides fold correctlychaperoninsMain organelle providing for energy conversionMitochondria in both plant and animal cells Chloroplasts in plant cellshydrolysisbreaking of a bond in a molecule using water and making the molecule smallerosmosismovement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration or vice versapeptide bonda covalent bond formed between two amino acidsactive site of an enzymewhere the substrate attachesdenaturation of an enzymethe break down of the folds in the proteininduced fit of an enzymeadjusted fit like sitting in a bean bag chaircoenzymesa cofactor that is an organic molecule assists in catalysisnucleotideorganic molecules that serve as the monomers of nucleic acidspotential energy (in food, for example)glucosereceptor-mediated endocytosis (explain, don't draw)enables the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances even if not much of it in extracellular fluid by protein with receptorsmonosaccharide vs. disaccharideone ringed sugar vs. two ringed sugara biological community vs. an ecosystema group of same vs. living and non-living thingsa saturated fat vs. unsaturated fat in terms of structuresingle bonds vs. one or more double bonds and flexiblea fat (trygliceride) and a phospholipid, in terms of structure?phospholipids are made of 1 glycerol molecule and 2 fatty acid molecules not 3 like triglyceridestertiary and quaternary structure of a protein?tertiary is the third structure after the last fold, quaternary is when more than one structureFacilitated diffusion vs. active transport?facilitated diffusion is facilitated by a protein, active transport uses ATP energy for transportEndocytosis vs. exocytosis?endocytosis - entering the cell exoctosis - exiting the cellPlant cell structure vs. animal cell structureplant cell has a cell wall and animal cell does notProkaryotes vs. eukaryotes?Prokaryotes are small Eukaryotes have a true nucleusEnzymes and ribozymes?Enzymes are catalysits, they reduce the activation energy needed by substrates, ribozymes make RNAIsotonicmaintaining normal level of fluidshypotonicreducing the level or pressurehypertonicincreasing the level or pressureCompetitive inhibitionmolecule attaches to the active enzymeallosteric inhibitionmolecule attaches to the inactive form of the enzymeocean acidificationincreased acidity harmful to ocean lifetrans fatsunnatural lipids formed during deep fat fryingWhat is the likely origin of both mitochondria and chloroplasts? Explainbelieved to be prokaryote engulfed but not eaten by eurakyote and kept to perform some functionSteps of the scientific methodhypothesis - theory of outcome control group - neutral group by which all other outcomes are judged cannot be provenThe ultimate purpose of cellular respiration is to convert energy-rich glucose (or other food molecule) into about three dozen smaller energy molecules calledATPIn eukaryotic cells, glycolysis occurs in the ____________of the cell.cytoplasmther term glycolysis refers to the splitting of _________.glucoseInside a mitochondrion, a series of reactions (the citric acid cycle) results in the production of three energy-rich molecules: ATP, _________, FADH2NADHEmbedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane are proteins which shuttle protons (H+) andelectrons____________is the immediate source of the protons (H+) in the inner mitochrondrial membraneETCIn eukaryotes, __________serves as the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.oxygenATP __________is the enzyme that allows for chemiosmosis (the flow of protons (H+) back through the inner mitochondrial membrane); this enzyme is used to catalyze oxidative phosphorylation of ADP.synthaseYeasts are facultative anaerobes, which means that they are able to "respire" with or without __________oxygenwhen a yeast cell ferments one glucose molecule, it produces only ____ ATP2Photosynthesis (Ps) occurs in all of the following exceptfungiTo begin Ps in a plant cell, light must strike a pigment molecule embedded inthylakoid membraneDuring the light-dependent reactions, water molecules are split, releasingoxygenWhen light energy/photons hit chlorophyll, electrons are bounced around insidephotosystemsChl-a molecules ultimately relay electrons to an electron transport chain, generatingATP and NADPHThe main enzyme of the Calvin cycle, which locks CO2 to a 5 carbon molecule, isrubiscoThe Calvin cycle reactions arelight independentIn order to run the Calvin cycle, which of these is needed?ATP, NADPH, CO2, 5 carbon RuBPWhat do CAM plants do to prevent water loss via pores?they only open their stomata (pores) at night and store CO2 overnightCell signalingcAMP and calcium ions serve as second messengers in many signaling pathwaysTypes of plasma membrane receptorsion channel, tyrosine kinase, g-protein linked receptorWhat kind of receptors are in the lining of your nose?g-protein linked receptorA hormone is an example of aligandKinases are important because they activate certain other molecules by adding a(n)phosphateApoptosissculpting processApoptosis is useful insculpting in embryo, destruction of old, worn out cells, and destruction of cells with mutated DNAYeasts locate mates by picking up their chemical signals with receptors locatedon their plasma membranesThe influence of one cell-signaling pathway on another signaling pathway is calledcross-talkCell division is necessary for all of the following:healing of wounds, replacement of old cells and developmentWhat moves the chromosomes around during mitosis?spindle fibersDuring which stage of cell division are chromosomes duplicated?interphaseDuring which state of mitosis are chromosomes lined up in the middle of a cell?metaphaseDuring which stage of cell division are sister chromatids separated?anaphaseDuring cross-over, what results if a chromosomal tip breaks off and gets lost?deletionThe number of mature eggs that result from meiosis of one ovarian stem cell is _____1cell division in eukaryotes vs. cell division in bacteriabacteria cell division - double and divide one chromosome eukaryotes divide and duplicate all chromosomessister chromatids vs. homologssister chromatids are identical homologs are similar onlycytokinesis in plant cells vs. animal cellscytokinesis in plant cells - a cell plate divides the cell and creates a cell wall cytokinesis in animal cells creates a cleavage furrow where the cell will split intwoanaphase I and II of meiosis, in terms of what are separatedTetrad in Anaphase 1 is split into a pair of sister chromatids and they are further split in Anaphase IIhaploid cells vs. diploid cells, in terms of the number of sets of chromosomes*haploid cells have 1/2 the number of chromosomes that diploid cells have haploid cells are gametes - the sperm and the egg with 23 chromosomes each diploid cells are all other cells or somaticWhat did Englemann discover when he shone a light through a prism on a slide with algae and bacteria?that light is absorbed at different wavelengthsWhy is photosynthesis arguably the most important process on Earth?because it feeds the worldHow was coal formed?Swamp plants heated and pressurized by the earthThe burning of coal and other fossil fuels releases mainly the heat-holding gas _________ _______ that may accumulate, causing global warming.carbon dioxideWhat is the only human tissue known to regularly undergo lactic acid fermentation?muscle tissueName a food or drink produced commercially using fermentation and identify the type of fermentation usedalcohol, beer, wine alcohol fermentationWhat three structures are in a plant cell that are not in an animal cell?cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuoleWhat are two genetic causes of Down Syndrome? Which causes 90% of such cases?nondisjunction and translocation nondisjunction causes 90%what is a karyotype?a picture of someone's chromosomesMendel always got a 3:1 phenotypic ratio from hismonohybrid crossesMendel crossed purebred tall x dwarf pea plants. These P1 plants were bothhomozygousMendel derived his Law of Independent Assortment after analyzing data from hisdihybrid crossesthe effect of one gene on another (an effect mendel didn't see in peas) is calledepistasisIn genetics, a desxription such as "tall" or "red-eyed" is called aphenotypeWhat is true of incomplete dominance?cross-breeding may yield different phenotypesAlternative forms of a gene are calledallelesThe ABO blood group in humans is an example ofmultiple alleles and codominanceHuman intelligence, height, skin color and many other traits are a result ofpolygenic inheritanceThe purpose of using a Punnett square in genetics is to showprobabilitySome older Japanese women have small feet, due to an old tradition of binding a girl's feet while she is young. Fortunately, this tradition has been phased out, and their grandchildren (girls and boys) have normal feet. This shows the influence ofenvironmental effectsA common condition (1 in 400 people) in which a person has extra fingers/toes ispolydactylyname an autosomal recessive disordercystic fibrosisName a(n) autosomal dominant condition in humansachondroplasialack of the enzyme necessary to break down phenylalanine is involved inPKUDuring an amniocentesis, cells are obtained fromamniotic fluidT. H. Morgan is credited with discovery/development of all of thesegene linkage, sex-linked inheritance, gene mappingWhich chromosome carries the trait in the case of red-green color blindness?XIn humans, inheritance of three copies of chromosome #21 per cell is an example ofaneuploidyPolyploidy is most common inplantsWhat genotypes occur among living humansXXX, XO, XXY, XYY, XX, XY (not YO)What are sex determining genes?XX/XO, XX/XY, 1 set/2sets of chrs.,ZZ/ZW but not epistasisX-linked disorders are usually passed frommother to sonThe ends of eukaryotic chromosomes shorten with each round of cell division true or falsetrueThe mosaic orange and black coat patches of calico cats are due tox-inactivationA normal part of the embryonic development process that occurs in order to allow "X equality" between male and female mammals is calledx-inactivationThe SRY gene is important in mammals for encoding a protein that orchestratesdevelopment of the testes in malesWhat causes 90% of Down Syndrome cases?failure of #21 chromosome to separate correctly during meiosisAlmost all human DNA is found inside nuclei except a tiny amount found in ourmitochondriaWhich of these involves silencing a gene by wrapping it in methyl (-CH3) groups?genomic imprintingMendeltheories of genotype and phenotype were correct, ratios were correct for monohybrid and dihybrid his work provided the basis for genetic researchGriffithdiscovered transformation of cells and was surprised to find that when he killed the pathogenic bacteria with heat and then mixed the cell remains with living bacteria of the nonpathogenic strain, some of the living cells became pathogenic.Avery and his team discoveredthat DNA was the transforming agencyHershey and Chase investigated whether it was DNA or protein that was the transforming element (and thus a likely chemical candidate for heredity). Why did they choose radioisotopes of sulfur and phosphorus? Be specific.Because they were neutral and would not change the outcomeWhat two things did Chargaff contribute to our knowledge about DNA?C~G and T~A, Ratio varies between speciesWatson and Crick published the structure of DNA. They owed part of their success to Rosalind Franklin. Why?Franklin took the xray that showed the structure of the DNAMeselson and Stahl are credited with showing that DNA replication is semiconservative. What exactly does semiconservative mean, in this context?a daughter molecule will have 1/2 of the parent moleculeIt was suspected because of the directionality (5-3) of DNA strands, replication on one strand must occur differently than on the other. Okazaki discovered Okazaki fragments. Which strand of DNA do they form on - the leading strand or the lagging strand?lagging strandA couple who both have normal health are shocked when they have a child who is diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. How could this have happened?Both of the parents were carriers of the CF geneWhat is the process involving the production of mRNA from a DNA template?transcriptionWhat are some modifications that can occur to a primary transcript in eukaryotes?addition of a Gcap, addition of a poly-A tail, splicingWhat percentage of your DNA is ever actually transcribed during your lifetime?2-3%Where exactly does translation occur in eukaryotic cells?ribosomesThe job of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is to carefully match and attachamino acid to tRNAThe tRNAs tow amino acids to a ribosome; there, each tRNA binds to a(n)codonA polyribosome means that multiple ribosomes are reading the samemRNA transcriptTranscription and translation occur simultaneously in prokaryotes becausethere is no nuclear membrane to separate themA frameshift mutation is generally more harmful than other mutations becauseit may result in changes to many codonsA nucelosome is a section of DNA wound around a cluster ofhistonesYou have about _______genes that encode about ______proteins23,000,100,000You do not make all 100,000 proteins every day! Some genes that you used as an ________or ______ will never be transcribed again. Actually, most genes are shut down most of the time.embryo, fetusYou have the same _____(protein recipes) in every cell of your body but cells express these _____differently. For example, your pancreas cells aer the only ones that produce insulin.genes, genesHumans have about _____genes that regulate protein production, so gene regulation must be a big deal!250DNA packing is a form of ____regulationgeneDNA methylationsilences genes by keeping DNA tightly packed in methyl groups (as if bubble wrapped) ex. X-inactivation in calico cats involves methylation, yielding a Barr body.DNA acetylationacetyl groups attached to histones prevent DNA from tightly packing; thus, acetylation keeps a gene exposed to the RNA polymerases of transcriptionHox (homeotic) genes are found in all animals (including humans)Master control gene controls embryonic developmentTightest level of gene regulation istranscriptionWhat is a common target of regulation since that is where RNA polymerase must bind in order to start transcriptionThe promoter - TATAA box It's like nipping it in the budWhat is an operon?A stretch of DNA in bacteria, do not yet know if humans have operonsWhat is RNAigene regulator that turns off gene expression with same RNA sequenceWhat is believed to have prompted the evolution of RNAi?virusesWhat are proto-oncogenesNormal genes that keep cell division at a normal paceWhat are oncogenesresult from multiple mutations in proto-oncogenes and promote tumor growthtumor-suppressor geneshelp prevent tumor formationwhat are virusesnon cellular and much smaller than bacteriaevery organism in the world appears to have at least a few viruses that can infect it. the first virus ever isolated wasthe tobacco mosaic viruswhat is biotechnologymanipulation of cells or cell products to make useful products - tweaking or cell culturingGenetic engineering often involves the production of recombinant DNA. This usually involves using ______ enzymes to splice a foreign gene into a _______(circle of DNA) that is then moved into a now-transgenic host cellrestriction, plasmidOrganisms that have recombinant DNA are called transgenic or genetically modified (GM). In lab, we attempted to transform E. coli by inserting a _______containing a GFP gene as well as a gene for ________________, which allowed for selection of GM E. coli.plasmid, antibiotic resistant AMPrWhat are restriction enzymes?enzymes that cut DNA @ a limited # of specific locationsWhat is PCR and how is it useful?Polymerase Chain Reaction, produces many copies of DNAWhat are the three steps of PCR?Denaturation, Annealing, extension (knitting)What is gel electrophoresis?separates and analyzes DNAWhat are the different meanings of "cloning"can copy DNA, RNA and whole cellsWhat type of cloning was involved in producing Dolly the sheep, "Cc" the cat, etc.?Nuclear transplantationWhat are pharm animals?transgenic animals are made by introducing genes from one species into another - designed to make medicine for usTypical virus has a _______ with DNA or RNA inside. DNA in a virus can be ________ or ______, as can the RNA. Some viruses also have an outer _______made of membrane. It may be studded with spikes that help the virus attach to/enter a ____cell. The viruses that have envelopes leave the host cell by _____; each such virus is wrapped in a bit of host cell plasma membrane as its new envelope. Many (not all) animal viruses are enveloped.protein coat, single stranded, double stranded, envelope, host, budding_______________are viruses that attach only bateria and are species specific. In their _______cycle, the virus multiplies inside a bacterial host using host enzymes/ribosomes, assembles new viral particles and then eventually causes the host cell to ____. There is also a _______cycle, in which viral DNA becomes incorporated into host cell DNA as what is called a ______; it may lie silent/dormant for a while before re-entering a _____cycle.bacteriophages, lytic, lyse lysogenic, prophage, lyticSome viruses, such as HIV, are ____________. they have RNA and _______________, an enzyme that allows it to produce complementary DNA from its viral RNA; this DNA can then merge with host cell DNA and be replicated, passed on in the cell line.retroviruses, reverse transciptase____________are DNA segments that can move. They encode enzymes that can cut the segment out (or copy it) and allow it to move to another site, where the enzymes then splice it in. Similarites between retroviruses and transposons indicate that transposons are ____________,. We humans have some transposons as do other organisms.transposons (jumping gene), viral remnants_____________is a broad term for all DNAgenomeSome viruses can cross ____________lines. influenza can pass from birds to pigs or humans. Viruses seem to play a role in _____ of human cancer cases.species, 15%what is the smallest infectious agent?_______, which are only viral DNA/RNA, infect some plantsviroidswhat are infectious proteins called? what do they infect?prions, animals and humanswhat is the epicenter of virusesfar east