58 terms

ISB 202- Exam 2

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Aristotle
-Geocentric Model
later came Ptolemaic Model w/epicycles and deferrents
-Assumed that the "heaven" couldn't change which was later proved wrong by Brahe's observations of comets , etc.
wrong assumption = wrong conclusion
Parralax
-apparent shift in position of an object relative to the background caused by a change in viewing angle
-the more distant the object the smaller the parallax
Kepler's Laws
1. the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at a focus"
2. a line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal areas of time
3. the square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi major axis of its orbit
Scientific Law
- a verbal or mathematical statement of a relationship that is always the same under the same conditions
-DESCRIPTION of what occurs under certain conditions
Law vs Theory
-law does not include explanation
-law is simply an observation/description about what occurs
-laws cant become theories, theories may try to explain laws
-law are always the same under the same conditions
Galileo
-saw craters on the moon ; undermined the premise of the geocentric model that the heavens still stood
Isaac Newton
-Father of Physics; invented calculus
-Spectroscopy;
-led to conclusion that natural laws are foundations of universe
Star
-ball of gas undergoing nuclear fusion in its interior. This is the process by which the nuclei of atoms fuse together to form new elements
-looking at the stars is essentially looking back in time
-200 billion stars in our galaxy

-hot due to strong gravitational compression
Geocentric Model
-Earth is at the center of the Universe
-All motion in the heavens is uniform circular motion
-the objects in the heavens are made from perfect material, and cannot change, their intrinsic properties
Newton's Law of Gravity
-all objects exert a gravitational attraction on all other objects
Edwin Hubble
-discovered that galaxy clusters are receding universe is getting bigger everyday; true scale of universe
-discovered by realization that clusters outside our galaxy was redshifted (must be moving away from us ; greater distance = faster recession) used electromagnetic light wavelengths
away=red=longer
towards us =blue = shorter
Universe
Universe
-galaxies are not moving through space at phenomenal speeds, the galaxies are embedded, it is space that is expanding at these speeds
-no center to universe

-consists of energy, matter, and forces
Big Bang Theory
-Energy in the form of EMR; some of this energy converted into matter (protons, neurons, electrons, etc.) in accordance to law E=MC^2 (eruption of energy)
-Some of the energy from the Big Bang continued to exist as background radiation ; as the radiation cooled, a longer wavelength formed
-expansion of space stretched the wavelength
Criteria of Adequacy
1.Testability(Falsifiability)
2.Fruitfulness (lead to novel predictions; new phenomena)
3.Scope (Amount of diverse phenomena that can be explained)
4.Simplicity (Occams Razor)
5.Conservation (consistency)
Quarks
-6 varieties (up, down, charm,strange, top, bottom)
-combine to form protons & neutrons that make up the nuclei of an atom
-2 up quarks, 1 up quarks = Proton
-2 down quarks, 1 up quarks = Neutron
Atoms
-made of protons, neutrons, electrons
-smallest unit of an element
-mostly empty space
-neutral atom- protons equal electrons
-isotope variation in the number of neutrons
-atoms of different types differ in terms of the # of protons they contain
-combine to form molecules which are necessary for life
Force
- Anything that produces a change in the state of motion of an object.
-4 Forces in Nature - Gravity, Electromagnetic, Strong Nuclear, Weak Nuclear
-Gravity & Electromagnetic are the only two that act OUTSIDE and inside of nucleus ; Strong & Weak are short ranged and can only act inside of nucleus
-acts on matter (atoms); combines particles through forces of attraction

-Force = Mass x Acceleration
Gravity
-architect of universe
-double the distance, decrease force by a factor of 4 times
-attracts all things, never repels
-weakens w/distance ; strength depends on mass (as mass increases , force increases) and distance
-ALL objects regardless of their mass, experience the same acceleration when in a state of free fall (9.8 = acceleration of gravity (g))
-Warp in space time
-affect of gravity brought helium and hydrogen atoms together ; before then there was darkness
Electromagnetic Force
-holds atom together; but not nucleus because protons repel protons
-unlimited range
-weakens with distance
-protons and neutron have equal but opposite charge and attract one another
-foundation of life ; involves chemical bonds and sharing/transfer of electrons
Newton's 1st Law
-a body at rest will remain at rest, or if in motion, will continue in a state of uniform motion, unless acted upon by a force

-uniform motion = constant speed & constant direction
Newton's 2nd Law
- Force = Mass x Acceleration
-equation shows that if a mass is accelerated, then a force must have acted on it
-we can calculate the path of an object
-Acceleration refers to change in speed or direction
Newton's 3rd Law
-For every action, there is an equal & opposite reaction
-Electromagnetic forces of repulsion between electrons in your body and wall/ground allow you to not fall through the earth
Time Dilation
-at high speeds, time actually slows down
-at light speed time stops
-traveling a light speed means the crew could never go back to earth time and would be unable to communicate with earth
ex. space traveler comes back younger than twin
-Special Relativity Theory attempts to explain it
Centrifugal Force
-outward directed force that acts on an object when it is moving in either a circle or along a curved path
-due to law of inertia ; wants to keep moving on a straight path
-as velocity increases, force becomes stronger
Length Contraction
-at near light speed, the length of an object actually shrinks
Mass
-nothing with mass can have light speed
-becomes infinite at light speed, so required infinite amount of energy
Theories
-explanations of observed facts and laws, and they are based on evidence and logic, they are not opinions
Paranormal Phenomena
-beyond the normal reality we experience and understand
clairvoyance- ability to gain info about an object, location, or event through means other than the known human senses
precognition- the ability to see future
mediumship- ability to communicate w/ dead
Psychokinesis- ability to move or affect objects w/ mind
Fortune Telling
Physic Healing
Ectoplasm
- supposedly oozed from ghosts or spirits and makes it possible for them to materialize and perform
Psychic Reading
Cold Reading - no prior knowledge of client; relies on clues provided by the client to infer information about the client
Hot Reading- medium uses a variety of information gathering techniques to obtain information about their client (use microphones, surveys, etc. )
Parapsychology
- branch of psychology that attempts to scientifically study paranormal phenomena
Bohr
-when electrons shift from one electron shell to another, they emit a specific amount of energy - quanta of energy
-electrons move from one shell to another, without crossing the space in between, a process called quantum jump
Spectroscopy
-the nature of the electron shells/energy levels within the atoms that comprise a material
-the fact that the pattern for the emission and absorption of light is different for different materials and so the pattern is like a fingerprint that is unique for each type of material
Energy
-the ability to do work
Work
Work = Force x Distance
-moved against an opposing force
-moving a heavier object over the same distance equals more work
Power
-the amount of work in a given amount of time
-same amount of work in less time means more power
power = work/ time
First Law of Thermodynamics
-energy of motion converted into heat
-energy can be neither created nor destroyed
-energy can change form from one type to another
Heat
- the atomic and molecular motion of matter
- the random kinetic energy of atoms and molecules
Second Law of Thermodynamics
- disorder increases w/ time, waste heat is always produced and results in a loss of energy available to do work
-perpetual motion can never exist.
Speed
-Distance/time
Copernicus
-believed Ptolemaic model of Geocentric model violated principle of parsimony
-put the sun at the center
-his model had no new evidence just more elegant
-suggested that earth might be infinite (if infinite then no center; caused debates)
Brahe
-observed comet and other things in the sky; determined that the comet was further away than the moon
Kepler
- hired by Brahe for help
-discovered that orbits were elliptical (shook his faith but realized he discovered a new type of order )
-universe obeys laws that can be described mathematically
Cosmic Horizon
-travel time since the beginning of the universe determines our cosmic horizon
-galaxies exist beyond the horizon but their light has not had time to reach us
Matter
-composed of atoms
-every matter particle has an antimatter particle twin Ex. Electron & Positron
-antimatter was predicted
-all things were not created equally or in equal amounts (capable of producing life)
Proton
-number of protons determine the type of chemical element
Neuron
-electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals
Neutron
-invisible to Electromagnetic force
-neutral charge
Strong Nuclear Force
-attracts protons and neutrons in the nuclei
-holds nucleus together
-acts only in the nucleus
Weak Nuclear Force
-causes neutrons to break apart; radioactive decay
Types of Energy
-Kinetic
-Potential
-Electromagnetic Radiation
Kinetic Energy
1/2(mass x velocity)^2
-doubling velocity quadruples energy and work that can be done
Electro Magnetic Radiation
-light produced when an electron moves from a higher obit in an atom to a lower atom
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy can neither be created or destroyed, it can only change form.
Length Contraction and Mass
-at near light speeds the length of an object shrinks
-the mass of a object increases with speed and becomes infinite at light speed ; nothing with mass can be accelerated to that speed because it would require an infinite amount of energy to accelerate it to that speed
Warp in Space Time
-Gravity is a warp in space time
-space itself can expand faster than the speed of light
Ghosts
In Homers time - Ghost were passive and harmless; not feared
Athenian Times - Ghost could ask living to carry out their instructions , were feared
Early Medieval Times- Ghost concerned with Christian teachings
Late Medieval Times- Ghost wanted reinforce Christian teachings & talk about the after life
Modern Times - percipients don't know the ghost

-shows the lack of consistency
Failure to Replicate
-sheep goat effect
-psi missing
-decline effect