Human ecology final week 9

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Terms in this set (43)
Industrialized goalAgriculture; crops to sell for profit; food, fiber (e.g., tree farms), biofuels (e.g., ethanol)Energy sourcesIndustrialized goal; sun, fossil fuelsNutrientsIndustrialized goal; soil, synthetic fertilizer, air, water (often irrigation requiring energy)Pest controlIndustrialized goal; synthetic pesticides; little genetic diversity within a crop species; monocultureFossil fuelsMachinery; synthetic fertilizer and pesticides; irrigation; storage; packaging; transporationFossil fuel use advantagesHigh yield and less labor per acreFossil fuel use disadvantagesDegrades natural resource base; based on nonrenewable resource; ecologically unsustainableWater issuesProblems with industrialized agriculture; groundwater depletion from irrigation; pollution from fertilizer and pesticide runoff; sediment pollution from eroding soil particles; pollution from animal wastes; enrichment of surface water from fertilizer runoff and livestock wastesAir pollutionProblems with industrialized agriculture; pesticide sprays; soil particles from wind erosion; odors from livestock factories; greenhouse gases from combustion of fossil fuels; other air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuelsLand degredationProblems with industrialized agriculture; soil erosion; loss of soil fertility; soil salinization; soil pollution; waterlogged soil from improper irrigationLoss of biological diversityProblems with industrialized agriculture; habitat fragmentation; monocultures; stressors from air and water pollution; stressors from pesticides; replacement of many traditional crop and livestock varieties with just a fewAbiotic componentsSoil ecosystem; inorganic minerals and decaying organic matter (N, P, Ca, Mg); water; airLiving organismsSoil ecosystem; nitrogen-fixing bacteria; mycorrhizae fungi; soil aerators (keeps it porous)ProcessesSoil ecosystem; BGCs; infiltration; weathering of rocksHuman impacts to soil ecosystemAlters/disrupts abiotic, biotic, process components; soil degradation - compaction, acidic deposition, climate disruption; soil erosion - water/windBreaking of BGCsReduction in soil fertility replaced by synthetic fertilizerLivestockAnimal agriculture; unconfined (free range); loosely confined (pasture with a fence); confined (within a feedlot or building)Unconfined/loosely confinedAnimal agriculture; depend on grasslands for grazing; potentially sustainable; overgrazing if stock over carrying capacityConfined animal feeding operationsBring food to livestock; pollution problems - water, air; antibiotic resistance - antibiotics used to promote growthCropland per person is shrinkingTrends in agriculture; adding more people; moving up trophic level (meat); urban/suburban sprawl; soil erosion and degradationIrrigated area per person is shrinkingTrends in agriculture; adding more people; overdraft; pollution infiltrationTrends in agricultureGrain production per person starting to decline; this all before full impacts of - people and consumption human overpopulation, water loss and pollution, biodiversity loss, climate disruption1st green revolutionProvided high yielding, genetically uniform crops; became dependent on high-input; nearing physiological limits of plantsLow-input industrial agricultureSustainable agriculture; reduce/eliminate synthetic fertilizers; reduce/eliminate synthetic pesticides; reduce intensity (let land recover); increase crop diversity; goal - better mimic natural ecosystemCropsSustainable agriculture; improve soil fertility by adding organic matter and managing soil biology to minimize commercial inorganic fertilizer inputsPastureSustainable agriculture; emphasize total agricultural ecosystem rather than single crop (monoculture)OrchardSustainable agriculture; increase biological diversity in crops and livestock to enhance food security, maximize natural processes (such as pest control and pollution), and minimize pesticide inputsWetlandsSustainable agriculture; manage wetlands and water resources carefully; leave existing wetlands intactCertified sustainable timberSustainable agriculture; enhance soil health and minimize erosion through crop rotation, multiple cropping, conservation tillage, and planting tracts of forestFood solution 1Reduce human overpopulationFood solution 2Protect natural resource base; soil, water, air, pollinatorsFood solution 3Shift to sustainable (low-input) agriculture; help industrial farmers transition to organic and connect public to themFood solution 4Develop new approaches; perennial agriculture