72 terms

Histology 1 & 2

Bio 430 with Professor Rogers
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cell differentiation
the development of specific and distinctive features in cells, from a single cell(fertilized egg) to all the specialized cells of adulthood
primary germ layers
specialize to form the four primary tissues- epithelium ,nervous tissue, and connective tissues- that make up all body organs.
tissue
groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function.
apical surface
an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ
basal surface
the surface near the base of interior of a structure
cilia
tiny, hairlike projections on cell surface that move in a wavelike manner. responsible for propelling other substances across a cells surface
basement membrane
reinforces the epithelial sheet, helping it to resist stretching and tearing forces, and defines the epithelial boundary.
simple squamous epithelium
description: single later of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm
Function: allows app age of materials by diffusion and filtration
Location: air sacs of lungs lining of heart, blood vessels, and lining of ventral body cavity
simple cuboidal epithelium
description: single layer of cube like cells with large spherical central nuclei.
Function: secretion and absorption
Location: ducts and secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface
simple columnar epithelium
description: single layer of tall cells with rend to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia
Function: absorption , secretion of mucus, enzymes and other substances
Location: stomach to anal canal , gallbladder
goblet cell
individual cells (unicellular glands) that produce mucus
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
description: single layer of cells of differing heights , some not reaching free surface and may contain mucus.
Function: secretion particularly mucus
Located: in males sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands.
stratified squamous epithelium
description: composed of several cell layers , well suited for its protective role in the body.
function: protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
Location: found in areas subjected to wear and tear, and its surface cells are constantly being rubbed away and replaced by division of its basal cells.
stratified columnar epithelium
description: only its apical layer of cells is columnar
location: found in pharynx , the make urethra and lining some glandular ducts.
transitional epithelium
description: resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal.
Function: it stretches readily and permits distention of urinary organ by contained urine.
Location: lines the ureters, urinary bladder , and part of the urethra.
gland
consist of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product
secretion
cell product that is transported to the exterior of a cell. refer both the glands product and the process of making and releasing that product
endocrine gland
ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood.
exocrine gland
glands that have ducts through which their secretions are carried to a particular site.
mucus
sticky, thick fluid secreted by mucous glands and mucus membranes; keeps the free surface of membranes moist
adipose tissue
areolar connective tissue modified to store nutrients; a connective tissue consisting chiefly of fat cells
adipocyte
an adipose, or fat cell
brown fat
adipose cells contain abundant mitochondria which use lipid fuels to hear the blood stream.
reticular connective tissue
connective tissue with a fine network of reticular fibers that form the internal supporting framework of lymphoid organs. Supports many free blood cells in spleen and in bone marrow.
dense irregular connective tissue
bundles of collagen fibers are much thicker and they are arranged irregularly, they run in more than one plane. This type of tissue forms sheets in body areas where tension is exerted from many different directions. It is found in the skin as the leathery dermis (kidneys, bones, cartilages muscles and nerves)
elastic connective tissue
contain elastic fibers that are present in relatively high concentration in several organs, including the largest arteries in the body.
dense regular connective tissue
contain closely packed bundles of collagen fibers to tension where the tension is exerted in a single direction. it forms the tendons , which are cords that attach muscles to bones, and flat sheetlike tendons called aponeuroses.
chondrocyte
mature cell of cartilage
hyaline cartilage
most abundant cartilage type in the body supports and reinforces has resilient cushioning properties; resist compressive stress. Found in most of the embryonic skeleton, cartilages of the nose, trachea and larynx.
elastic cartilage
cartilage with abundant elastic fibers;more flexible than hyaline cartilage
fibrocartilage
the most compressible type of cartilage; resistant to stretch. Forms vertebral discs and knee join cartilages.
osseous tissue
bone , it supports and protects body structures it provides cavities for fat storage and synthesis of blood cells.
mucous membrane
membranes that form the linings of body cavities open to the exterior (digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracks)
chondroitin sulfate
is a chemical that is normally found in cartilage around joints in the body
hyaluronic acid
substance that is naturally present in the body. It is found in the highest concentrations in fluids in the eyers and joints. Act as a cushion and lubricant in the joints and other tissues
collagen fibers
the most abundant of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue.
elastic fibers
fiber formed from the protein elastin, which gives a rubbery and resilient quality to the matrix of connective tissue
reticular fibers
they surround small blood vessels and support the soft tissue of organs
fibroblast
young actively mitotic cell that forms the fibers of connective tissue
mast cells
immune cells that function to detect foreign substances in the tissue spaces and initiate local inflammatory responses agains them, typically found clustered deep to an epithelium or long blood vessels
macrophages
large, irregular shaped cells that avidly phagocytize a broad variety of foreign materials. They are central actors in the immune system, they are peppered throughout loose connective tissue, bone marrow and lymphatic tissue.
mesenchyme
mature connective tissue that arises from a common embryonic tissue
connective tissue proper
has two subclasses the loose connective tissues (areolar, adipose and reticular) and dense connective tissues (dense regular , dense irregular and elastic)
areolar connective tissue
support and binds other tissues (job of fibers) to hold body fluids (the ground substance's role) , defend against infection (via the activity of white blood cells and macrophages) , and to store nutrients as fat (in fat cells)
edema
abnormal increase in the amount of intestitial fluid: causes swelling
nervous tissue
main component of the nervous system - the brain, spinal cord, and nerves- which regulates and conduct nerve impulses.
muscle tissue
well- vasculated tissues that are responsible for most types of body movement.
skeletal muscle
tissue that is packed by connective tissue sheets into organs, attached to the bones of the skeleton
cardiac muscle
specialized muscle of the heart. Its contractions help propel blood through the blood vessels to all parts of the body
smooth muscle
spindle- shaped cells with one centrally locate nucleus and no externally visible striations (bands) found mainly in the walls of hollow organs. It acts to squeeze substances through these organs by alternately contracting and relaxing.
regeneration
replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue
fibrosis
involves proliferation of fibrous connective tissue called scar tissue
scar tissue
is the proliferation of fibrous connective tissue
granulation tissue
delicate pink tissue composed of several elements. contains capillaries that grow in from nearby areas and lay down a new capillary bed.
adhesion
may for as the newly forming scar tissue connects adjacent organs together. Such adhesions can prevent the normal shifting about of loops of the intestine, dangerously obstructing the flow of foodstuffs through it.
healing by first intention
the simplest type of healing , occurs when the edges of the wound are brought together by sutures, staples , or other means used to close surgical incision. Only small amounts of granulation tissue need be formed.
keloid
abnormal proliferation of connective tissue during healing of skin wounds; results in large, unsightly mass of scar tissue at the skin surface.
healing by second intention
the wound edges remain separated, and the gap is bridge by relatively large amounts of granulation tissue, the manner in wounds in which the edges are brought together, and larger scars result.
lesion
any injury, wound, or infection that affects tissue over an area of a definite size (as opposed to being widely spread throughout the body)
Marfan's syndrome
genetic disease resulting in abnormalities of connective tissues due to a detect in fibrillin , a protein that is associated with elastin in elastic fibers. Clinical signs include loose jointness, long limbs and spider like fingers and toes , visual problems, and weakened blood vessels due to poor connective tissue reinforcement.
scurvy
a nutritional deficiency caused by lack of adequate vitamin C needed to synthesize collagen signs and symptoms include blood vessel disruption, delay in wound healing, weakness of scar tissue, and loosening of teeth.
contact inhibition
normal cells stop proliferating when they begin touching
telomere
are strings of nucleotides that cap the ends of chromosomes, protecting them from fraying or fusing with other chromosomes, much like plastic caps preserve the ends of shoelaces.
apoptosis
process of controlled cellular suicide; eliminates cells that are unneeded , stressed or aged
necrosis
death and disintegration of a cell or tissues caused by disease or injury
metastasis
the spread of cancer from one body part or organ into another not directly connected to it.
carcinogen
cancer- causing genes
oncogene
cancer causing genes
proto-oncogene
benign forms of oncogenes in normal cells
tumor suppressor gene
suppress cancer by inactivating carcinogens , aiding DNA repair, or enhancing the immune system's counterattack
biopsy
removing a tissue samble surgically and examine it microscopically for malignant cells
staging
cancer is assigned from 1 to 4 according to the probability of cure (1 has the best probability , stage 4 the worst)
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