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Exam 3 Terms
Terms in this set (66)
Central Nervous System
center of the body; brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
nerves and ganglia outside of the brain/spinal cord
Somatic NS (PART OF PNS)
controls voluntary bodily movements (NS)
Automatic NS (PART OF PNS)
communications controlling bodily functions that generally are not under a persons control (i.e. breathing, heart rate)
Sympathetic NS (PART OF AUTOMATIC NS)
"fight or flight"
Parasympathetic NS (PART OF AUTOMATIC NS)
calming (restore baseline heart rate)
thin, long projections from a neuron that sends OUTGOING SIGNALS to other neurons
synaptic contacts with other nerve cells or with effector cells (muscle or gland cells). ______________contain neurotransmitters of various kinds, sometimes more than one; ending of axons
projections that branch out from the main body of a neuron; RECEIVING incoming signals from other neurons; DETECTS from axon terminals
impulse fires chemical into gap, bridge microscopic gap
Cell body (soma)
the nucleus-containing central part of a neuron exclusive of its axons and dendrites that is the major structural element of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord, the ganglia, and the retina—called also perikaryon, soma.
The site in which neurotransmitters are received
brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of POSITIVELY charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
When a nerve impulse reaches the end of an axon, it stimulates chemicals called transmitters or neurotransmitters to flow rapidly across the synaptic cleft, producing an output from the axon and an input on the dendrite of the following neuron.
chemical substances that travel across synapses between neurons
**primary way neurons communicate
INCREASE likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire
DECREASE likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire
a chemical messenger that helps carry signals across a nerve synapse.
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood.
An inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
Glutamate sends chemical messages in the brain by "exciting" neurons that are sensitive to it. Although it plays a vital role in learning, memory, and brain development
homeostasis; maintenance of a stable physical state
-- Regulate physiological activity (heart rate and breathing)
-- "gag reflex"
-- OLDER BRAIN
brain's sensory switchboard; directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex/replies into the cerebellum and medulla (IN---->OUT)
-- OLDER BRAIN
nerve network in the brainstem (arousal)
-- OLDER BRAIN
voluntary motor movement, emotion and thinking, balance
Limbic System includes...
fear and anger
below Thalamus; eating, drinking, body temperature, control of emotions
permanent memories, spatial memory
5. Association Areas in the Cortex
self reflection, 35% of total volume, center for contemplative thought about ourselves and our emotions
somatosensory information (body to environment); adjacent body parts are mapped into adjacent areas
visual information, active when generating mental imagery (back of brain)
hearing/memory, sounds, remembering facts and experiences
Association areas in the cortex
receives sensory information from other regions of the brain and connect it to memories and stored knowledge, enabling psychologically
receives information from skin surface/sense organs
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
regeneration of neurons
brain's capacity to change PHYSICALLY as a result of EXPERIENCE (Modify itself)
a techinque for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. Show brain functions
initials of a method of representation of brain waves
biochemicals that the endocrine system uses for communication , travel through bloodstreams as "messengers"
Moods, motives, mental abilities
glands that produce and secrete hormones which carry messages from brain to organs via BLOODSTREAM
any section of DNA that provides the full information needed to produce a protein
A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each __________ consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
molecule found in chromosomes that encodes the instructions for building an organism
entire set of genes possessed by an organism
study of hereditary influences and how it influences behavior and thinking
Monozygotic (identical twins)
single zygote splits into 2 embryos
Dizygotic (fraternal twins)
two genetically distinct zygotes form & two embryos implant into uterus
Closeness or distance between the heredity or inherited traits of individual organisms.
differences in a characteristic are explained by genetic factors of a POPULATION
The idea that nature and nurture have an interdependent relationship
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
biological process through which species develop and change across generations
systems that develop over a course of evolution
-- Successful at a SPECIFIC PROBLEM
the process by which possession of a gene leads to the appearance in the phenotype of the corresponding character.
Epigenetics, the study of how environmental experiences "switch on" genes, making them active in the production of protein
rapid eye movement, sleep stage during which there is rapid eye movement, frequent dreams, and brain activity resembling that of waking periods
people experience sudden, extreme feelings of sleepiness; "microsleep"
brief pauses in breathing during sleep
prolonged difficulty falling and staying asleep
Any practice in which people focus their attention for an extended period of time, as a method for increasing their ability to concentrate
A state of active, open attention on your
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