42 terms

25.2 "Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush"


Terms in this set (...)

"Reaganomics" consisted of what three parts?
One American's Story

1. budget cuts
2. tax cuts
3. increased defense spending
Why did Reagan immediately work to reduce the size of the federal government?
he thought it would encourage private investment
What was included in Reagan's strategy for downsizing the federal government?
deep cuts in government spending on social programs
What entitlement programs did Reagan's budget cuts leave alone?
programs that benefited the middle class, such as Social Security, Medicare, and veterans' pensions
What programs were slashed by 10% across the board during the Reagan budget cuts?
programs that benefited other groups (the poor mostly): urban mass transit, food stamps, welfare benefits, job training, Medicaid, school lunches, and student loans
"Reaganomics" rested heavily upon what economic philosophy?
supply-side economics
What was the theory behind "supply-side economics"?
1. If people paid fewer taxes, they would save more money
2. Banks could then loan that money to businesses, which could invest the money in resources to improve productivity
3. The supply of goods then would increase, driving down prices
Why did the budget deficit explode under Reagan?
Reagan authorized increases in military spending that more than offset cuts in social programs
What government agency had its budget almost double under the first three years Reagan was in office?
Defense Department
What two controversial weapon systems did Reagan revive?
the MX missile and the B-1 bomber
What was the common nickname for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)?
Star Wars
The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 introduced what economic theory into the American vernacular?
Trickle-Down Economics
Describe "trickle down economics".
income taxes and business taxes were cut by an average of 25 percent; the largest tax cuts went to those with thehighest incomes; as prosperity returned, the profits at the top would trickle down to the middle class and even the poor
What was the result of "trickle down economics"?
the rich got richer and the poor got poorer
Describe how the recovery under Reagan affect the various classes of people.
tax cuts had helped the rich, while social welfare cuts had hurt the poor
What had almost doubled by the end of Reagan's first term?
the national debt
What was one of the most important ways Reagan accomplished his conservative goals?
through his appointments to the Supreme Court
Who did Reagan appoint to the Supreme Court?
Sandra Day O'Connor, Antonin Scalia, and Anthony M. Kennedy
Who did Reagan nominate to the position of Chief Justice? Why was this person's nomination significant?
Justice William Rehnquist, the most conservative justice on the court at the time
Who did President Bush appoint to the Supreme Court?
David H. Souter and Clarence Thomas
Who accused Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of sexual harassment on live television during the Senate confirmation hearings?
Anita Hill
What was significant about the Reagan and Bush appointments to the Supreme Court?
they ended the liberal control over the Court that hadbegun under Franklin Roosevelt
The Court under Reagan became increasingly significant as the Court revisited what constitutional issues?
discrimination, abortion, and affirmative action
What two strategies did Reagan use to achieve to reduce the size of the federal government?
cutting federal entitlement programs and deregulation
As part of Reagan's campaign for smaller government, he did what?
removed price controls on oil and eliminated federal health and safety inspections for nursing homes

he deregulated the airline industry and the savings and loan industry
What major industries did Reagan deregulate?
the airline industry and the savings and loan industry
How was the airline industry deregulated under Reagan?
airlines were allowed to abandon unprofitabe air routes
What was one of the positive results of deregulation?
it increased competition and often resulted in lower prices for consumers
What government agency did Reagan cut the budget for to further his efforts at deregulation?
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
What major weather issue did Reagan ignore during his terms in office?
acid rain
How did Reagan help defeat the regulations employed by the EPA?
he appointed opponents of the regulations to enforce them
Who shot Reagan?
John Hinckley, Jr.
What types of coalitions of conservative voters approved of Reagan's policies?
business-people, Southerners, Westerners, and Reagan Democrats
Why did business-people approve of Reagan's polices?
they wanted to deregulatethe economy
Why did Southerners approve of Reagan's policies?
they welcomed the limits on federal power
Why did Westerners approve of Reagan's policies?
they resented federal controlson mining and grazing
Why did Reagan Democrats approve of Reagan's policies?
they agreed with Reagan on limiting federal government and thought that the Democratic Party had drifted too far to the left
Who did Reagan/Bush defeat in the 1984 election?
Walter Mondale/Geraldine Ferraro
Who did Bush/Quayle defeat in the 1988 election?
Michael Dukakis/Lloyd Bentsen
What was George Bush's motto during the 1988 election?
"Read my lips: no new taxes"
What was ironic about George Bush asserting that he wanted a "kinder, gentler nation"?
his campaign sponsored a number of negative "attack ads" aimed at his opponents
What did many believe contributed to the lowest voter turnout of a presidential election since 1924?
the negative ads and attacks