AP Biology Vocabulary - Big Idea #2
Vocabulary to support Big Idea #2. Biological systems utilize energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain homeostasis.
Terms in this set (71)
All the non-living things in an ecosystem (example: light, temperature, and soil composition).
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
Period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species whose adaptations allow them to fill new or vacant ecological roles in their communities.(see also Big Idea 1)
Reactions characterized by the build up in the body of complex chemical compounds from smaller simpler compounds (e.g., proteins from amino acids), usually with the use of energy.
Reproduction in which vegetative cells in the flower develop into zygotes to create seeds by a clonal reproduction process
A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reaction and processes. releases energy when one of its high-energy bonds is broken to release a phosphate group
An enzyme embedded in the membranes of both the thylakoid (in the chloroplast) and in the mitochondria. It makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphates when H+ ions move through ATP synthase as a result of a chemiosmotic gradient.
A method of asexual reproduction by "division in half." In prokaryotes, binary fission does not involve mitosis, but in single-celled eukaryotes that undergo binary fission, mitosis is part of the process.
An environmental factor related to or produced by living organisms.
Asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism
A biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into a 3 carbon sugar using ATP and NADPH.
Result in the breakdown of molecules into smaller molecules. (Often exergonic)
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP.
An organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
A chemical within a cell that binds to the active site of an enzyme, blocking substrate molecules from the site and thereby reducing the enzyme's ability to catalyze a reaction.
Difference in concentration between two areas; sometimes across a cell membrane
An organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
A kind of allosteric regulation whereby a shape change in one subunit of a protein caused by substrate binding is transmitted to all the others, facilitating binding of subsequent substrate molecules.
A behavior that allows males and females of the same species to recognize each other and prepare to mate; dances, songs, pheromones
Changes in coloring of an animal's body covering(feathers, fur, or skin) to best blend into their surroundings.
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
The generation of ATP by cyclic electron flow. The synthesis of ATP during photosynthesis, coupled to the cyclic passage of electrons to and from P700 (the specialized form of chlorophyll a which only occur in photosystem I) using a series of carrier molecules. Photosynthetic process involving photosystem I only, by which chloroplasts can generate ATP without making NADPH or splitting water.
A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions.
Movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. It is caused by random thermal motion. At the end the molecules that moved should be in equilibrium.
A form of evolution in which the same organism is placed into different environments with different selection pressures. This causes organisms to evolve differently, to diverge from their common ancestor. The resulting (new) species may share structural (but not necessarily functional) similarity; divergent evolution produces homologous structures.
A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
Chemical reactions that store energy, combining the energy of the reactants. ATP formation is endergonic, because ADP & Pi are added together to store energy between the bonds. Energy needed to activate the reaction come from exergonic reactions.
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
Energy contained in a molecule's chemical bonds (usable energy); unspontaneous; anabolic; energonic; /\G+; /\H
Measure of disorder or randomness of a system (S)
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy (G is neg), releases energy. Starches breaking down into sugars, is an example of this. Energy released is often coupled to an endergonic reaction.
A form of passive transport, in which ions and molecules travel through specific protein channels across a membrane, down the concentration gradient.
A form of feedback loop in cells where the end product of the cell signaling pathway is the allosteric inhibitor of the beginning of the same pathway.
A synonym for anaerobic respiration. The system that includes glycolysis and either alcohol or lactic acid fermentation.
In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted to ethyl alcohol and CO2, producing 2 ATP in the process.
In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is is converted to lactic acid and produces 2 ATP as well.
G proteins are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
The process in cellular respiration in which 1 glucose molecule is converted into 2 pyruvate molecules, using up 2 ATP and Producing 4 ATP in the process, with a net gain of 2 ATP.
"The Post Office of the Cell"
A membrane bound structure in the cell that packages and ships proteins and other molecules across the cell and out of the cell in membrane bound vesicles.
The body's tendency to seek and maintain equilibrium in all physical conditions such as pH and temperature.
A type of solution when the outside concentration of solute is higher than the inside of the cell, causes shriveling/flaccidity.
A type of solution when the inside of the cell has a higher solute concentration, causing water to rush into the cell--turgid.
Equal solute concentration inside and outside the cell.
A series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from pyruvate into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of 1 ATP per cycle.
From one molecule of glucose produces 2 pyruvate, and in turn 2 acetyl-CoA. This means from one molecule of glucose you create 2 ATP--two cycles.
A membrane bound bag of digestive enzymes found in animal cells used for apoptosis.
The sum of all chemical reactions that take place in a cell.
A modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication. It results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
"The Powerhouse of the Cell"
A membrane bound organelle with its own DNA. It is made of a internal membrane known as the cristae, and an external membrane. This is the site of the Krebs Cycle and of oxidative phosphorylation.
The form of cellular division in which one cell divides into two identical cells.
A type of feedback loop in which the thing produced stops overproduction of said material, common in the Endocrinol System.
net primary productivity
The net amount of chemical energy produced by all primary producers in en ecosystem.
noncyclic (linear) photophosphorylation
The set of light-dependent reactions of the two plant photosystems, in which excited electrons are shuttled between the two photosystems producing a proton gradient that is used for the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP. The electrons are used to reduce NADP to NADPH. Lost electrons are replaced by the oxidation of water producing oxygen.
The membrane bound structure in all Eukaryotic Cells that houses all of the DNA.
Diffusion of water across a membrane from areas of high water potential to low water potential, aka from low solute to high solute.
Diffusion down a concentration gradient, uses no energy.
Chemical Signals released into the environment to elicit a specific response in members of the same population.
The process of converting light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. Allows plants to create their own food from sunlight.
The evolutionary history of relationships based on common ancestors.
All members of a certain species in a designated area.
A feedback loop in which the end product stimulates production of more of that product, oxytocin in breastfeeding.
A form of ecological succession in which mosses and grasses form form lichens on rocks, forming of soil and other organisms.
Plants and phytobacteria that perform photosynthesis.
A membrane bound vesicle that builds proteins--the protein factories.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Part of the membrane bound ER that is studded with ribosomes.
When new trees and plants form after primary succession.
picking who to have sex with, eliminates undesirable traits.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Membrane bound structure that produces many molecules, like lipids.
The formation of new species through either allopatric or sympatric speciation.
Proteins that aid in DNA transcription by stabilizing the strand itself and guiding DNA Pol III into place and aiding it.
Ecological Levels in the food chain.
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