Unit 1 Vocabulary

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implied powers
powers not explicitly expressed in the Constitution but can be used because of the Necessary and Proper Clause
initiative
allows voters to petition to propose legislation and then submit it for a vote by qualified voters
liberal
favors more government spending, more regulation, social welfare, and minority rights
John Locke
ideas inspired the Declaration of Independence, argued men are inherently good and should have life, liberty, and property, consent of the governed, social contract
Privileges and Immunities Clause
a clause that gives citizens of each states most of the privileges of citizens of other states
Referendum
procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature
Popular sovereignty
right to rule comes from the people, social contract with government
Thomas Hobbes
believed people were naturally greedy and selfish
Great Compromise
plan to have a popularly elected House based on state population and a state-selected senate, with two members for each state
grants in aid
programs, money, and resources provided by the federal government to be used for specific projects and programs
First Continental Congress
meeting of delegates to ratify Articles of Confederation
Full Faith and Credit Clause
states are required to recognize the laws and legal documents of other states
Antifederalists
favored a weaker national government with state's rights
Articles of Confederation
A weak constitution that governed during the Revolutionary War. No power to levy taxes, no national currency, no army
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to the Constitution, guaranteed liberties
Block grants
grants of money from federal government to states for programs in certain general areas rather than for specific kinds of programs
Categorical grants
federal grants for specific purposes such as building an aiport
Coalition
an alliance of factions
Conditions of aid
terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds
Confederation
government in which states are sovereign and the national government is allowed to do only that which the states permit
Conservative
a person who believes in limited government, less government regulations, conformity to social norms
Constitutional convention
a meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new Constiution
Declaration of Independence
declared America's separation in 1776 from Britain rule
Democracy
a government system whereby the people rule either directly or by elected representation
Devolution
an effort to reduce power from federal government by giving it to state government
Direct Democracy
a form of democracy in which people decide and vote on policy issues directly
Dual Federalism
national government is supreme in its sphere and state government is supreme in its sphere and the two should be kept separate
Enumerated powers
powers given to federal government alone
Faction
a group with a distinct political interest
Federalism
government authority shared by federal and state governments
Political Ideology
a coherent and consistent set of beliefs about who ought to rule, what principles rulers ought to obey, and what policies rulers ought to pursue
Political Culture
a patterned and sustained way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out
Police Power
state power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals
New Jersey Plan
proposal to create a weak national government
Nullification
the doctrine that a state can declare null and void a law if they feel it is unconstitutional
Necessary and Proper Clause
allows Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to its duties and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it
Mandates
terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants
Federalist Papers
documents by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison to supoport ratification of the Constitution
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