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HHP:4400 Ch 13- Trace minerals
Terms in this set (89)
Sources of Trace minerals depend on..
Soil and water composition; Food processing
Deficiencies in trace minerals can
affect people of all ages; can affect growth in children; May be difficult to recognize
Interactions between trace minerals may..
cause a deficiency; interfere with work of minerals; cause toxic reactions
Roles of Iron
Cofactor in oxidation-reduction reactions; part of electron carriers;
Most iron is found in
hemoglobin and myoglobin
Ferritin is found in
the small intestine
Iron transport protein
Dietary sources of Heme Iron?
foods from flesh(meat, fish, poultry)
What percent of total consumption is Heme Iron?
What is the absorption rate of Iron?
Dietary sources of Nonheme iron
plan and animal foods
What is the absorption rate of nonheme iron?
What sources enhance absorption of Iron?
MFP factor, Vitamin C, and some acids and sugars
What sources inhibit absorption of Iron?
Phytates & fibers; Vegetable proteins, calcium in milk, and Polyphenols
What factors affect absorption of iron?
Health, stage in life cycle, and iron status
Where does Transferrin transport iron to?
Where does Ferritin store extra iron?
What is Hemosiderin
another storage protein used when iron levels are high. Liver converts Ferritin to Hemosiderin
Iron is recycled ever ____ and used to ___
4 months; make new red blood cells
What is Hepcidin?
A hormone that regulates iron balance
What mineral is part of the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide?
Who are at risk of iron deficiency?
Women in productive years; pregnancy; infants and young children; adolescence and people who donate blood
Stages of Iron deficiency
Iron stores diminish-serum ferritin
Decrease in transport iron-transferrin
Iron deficiency-hemoglobin and hematocrit values
Difference between iron deficiency and anemia
Deficiency-depleted iron stores w/out regard to degree of depletion
Anemia-severe depletion of iron stores
Iron deficiency behaviors
Energy metabolism is impaired; Neurotransmitter synthesis is altered(reduces work capacity and mental productivity. Motivational problems)
What is Pica?
craving and consumption of nonfood substances:ice, dirt, clay, detergent; NOT ALWAYS LINKED WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA!
What is hemosiderosis?
deposits of iron storage protein in the liver, heart, and joints
_____ is linked with excess iron
Heart disease, cancer, and iron poisoning
What are symptoms of iron poisoning?
N/V, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, dizziness, shock, and confusion
RDA of Iron
Vegetarians-1.8x more iron
Iron supplementation includes
iron cookware, Vitamin C, physician prescription
Roles of Zinc in the body
gene expression, cell membranes, immune function, growth & development, synthesis, storage, and release of insulin, blood clotting, thyroid hormone function, behavior and learning, performance, visual pigment, taste perception, and sperm production
Zinc rate of absorption depends on
the zinc status and dietary fibers(phytates)
How do phytates affect zinc absorption?
They bind zinc and limits it's bioavailability
Zinc is lossed through
Feces, sweating, and urination
Small intestine receives zinc from:
food sources and pancreatic secretion
Zinc is recycled through
What transports Zinc?
Albumin and Transferrin
How do Iron and Zinc interact?
Excess iron=poor zinc absorption
Excess zinc= inhibit iron absorption
Groups vulnerable to Zinc deficiency
pregnant women, children, elderly, poor
Rich sources of Zinc
What sources inhibit zinc absorption?
whole grains and legumes
Effects of zinc deficiency
Growth retardation, impaired immune response, damage to central nervous system, immature sexual development, and performance in school
Zinc can be supplemented to treat
Roles of Iodine
Part of thyroid hormones-body temp, metabolic rate, reproduction, growth, blood cell production, nerve and muscle function, etc.
______ converts Iodine to ______
GI tract; Iodide
What happens when thyroid production declines?
Greater secretion of TSH; goiter
Iodine deficiency causes
Thyroid hormone production to decline
What is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage?
What is cretinism and what causes it?
a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth; Iodine deficiency
Sources of Iodine
Seafood, processed foods, iodized salt, and vegetables grown where iodine is present in soil
Roles of Selenium in the body
Antioxidant, part of proteins: Glutathione peroxidase and conversion of thyroid hormone to active form
What does glutathione peroxidase do?
prevents free radical formation
Selenium deficiency is associated with
heart disease and cancer
What is Keshan Disease? What causes it?
causes enlarged heart and insufficiency; prevalent in China, caused by Selenium deficiency
Sources of Selenium
Soil, meats, milk, eggs, and Brazil nuts
Transport and balance of Copper depends on a ______
system of proteins
Roles of Copper
Constituent of enzymes, iron metabolism, defense against oxidative damage, and makes collagen
Deficiency in Copper causes:
Cardiovascular disease, Menke's disease and Wilsons disease
What is Menke's disease? What causes it?
can absorb copper but not release it; copper deficiency
What is Wilson's disease and what causes it?
Toxicity; copper accumulates in the brain and tissues
Sources of Copper
Legumes, whole grains, nuts, shellfish, and seeds; copper plumbing
How much copper is absorbed from foods?
More than half
How is Copper eliminated from the body?
Where is Manganese located in the body?
Bones, kidneys, pancreas and liver
What are the roles of Manganese?
Cofactor for enzymes that facilitate metabolism; Bone formation; Conversion of Pyruvate to TCA cycle compound
What mineral helps convert pyruvate to a TCA cycle compound?
What are the requirements of Manganese?
They are low
What factors limit manganese absorption
Phytates, supplements of calcium and iron
Sources of Manganese
Whose at risk for toxicity of manganese? What happens?
Miners who inhale large amounts; brain disease
Where is fluoride found in the body?
teeth and bones
What are the sources of fluoride?
drinking water, tea, fish
Excess Fluoride leads to:
What does Fluorosis cause?
discoloration of teeth(mild)
What is the role of Fluoride
makes teeth stronger and more resistant to cavities.
Roles of Chromium
Carb and lipid metabolism; helps maintain glucose homeostasis
Sources of Chromium
unrefined foods have are better than refined foods
What is Molybdenum? what are it's sources?
Working part of several metalloenzymes; legumes, breads, grain products, leafy green vegetables, milk, and liver
Contaminant "Minerals are___ and include____
Heavy metals; Lead, Mercury, and Cadmium
Where are phytochemicals found? What are their physiological effects?
found in plant-derived foods; suppression of diseases, adverse effects if consumed in excess
Lycopene is a _________ and is found in _______.
Phytoestrogens are __________ and are found in _____________.
Phytochemicals can protect against_____ , ______and _____
cancer, DNA damage and heart disease
What are flavanoids?
a large group of phytochemcicals known for their health-promoting qualities such as protect LDL cholesterol, minimize inflammation, reduce blood platelet stickiness.
Flavanoid food sources
whole grains, legumes, soy, vegetable, fruits, herbs, spices, teas, chocolate, nuts, oil, and red wines.
flavanoids, carotenoids, phyosterols, lignans, lycopene, and phytoestrogens
What are functional foods
All foods that have a potential beneficial effect on health
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