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Kitchen debate
1958: US and Soviet Union agreed to exchange national exhibitions in order to allow citizens of each superpower to become acquainted with life in other

Soviet Exhibition: in NYC featured factory machinery, scientific advances, and other illustrations of how communism had modernized a backward country

American National Exhibition: in Moscow, consumer goods and leisure equipment hoped to demonstrate superiority of modern capitalism with ideology of political and economic freedom,
-Equating freedom with consumption
-High standard of living

... ... between Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev unscripted debate, first in kitchen of model suburban ranch house that represented home of average steelworkers, and then futuristic miracle kitchen with robot that swept floors
-Represented mass enjoyment of American freedom within suburban setting
-Role for women
Levittown
Engines of economic growth were residential construction and spending on consumer goods, the baby boom shift of population rom cities to suburbs created demand for housing, television sets, home appliances, and cars
William and Alfred Levitt built first ... on 1200 acres of potato fields on Long Island, most famous suburban developers

10,000 houses assembled quickly from prefabricated parts and priced within reach of most Americans

Required new form of shopping center- mall, which people drove in their cars to
Baby boom
Advertisements portrayed marriage as most important goal of American women, 1950s- couples married younger, at 20, and divorced less frequently

Had more children- 3.2 per family in baby boom that lasted until mid-60s
-Even at time of low immigration- population rose by 30 million

Feminism seemed to have disappeared, dismissed as evidence of mental disorder, stemmed from failure to accept maternal instinct
Housing segregation
Upper-class suburbs, working-class suburbs, industrial suburbs, and suburban neighborhoods within city limits

Federal agencies insured mortgages that barred resale of houses to non-whites, financing ... ...

1948- Supreme Court declared it legally unenforceable, but banks and private developers barred non-whites from suburbs

Government refused to subsidize mortgagees, except in segregated ones, Levitt did not allow blanks
Urban renewal
... ...: cities demolished poor neighborhoods in city centers that occupied potentially valuable real estate

Developers constructed retail centers and all white middle-income housing complexes, and states built urban public universities

White residents displaced by ... ... moved to suburbs while non-whites found housing in run-down city neighborhoods

Nearly 3 million blacks moved from South to North, increasing size of existing urban ghettos and new ones
-Half a million Puerto Ricans who were forced off land when American sugar companies expanding on island, moved to mainland

Non-whites remained concentrated in manual and unskilled jobs, result of employment discrimination and exclusion form education al opportunities at public and private universities

Ghettos: seen by many whites as places of crime, poverty, and welfare
In God We Trust
Official Americans values celebrated nation's religiosity as opposed to god-less communism

Highest percentage of population in nation's history were affiliated with church or synagogue

1954: to "strengthen our national resistance to communism" Congress added the words "under God" to Pledge of Allegiance

1957: ... ... ... ... was included on paper money

Hollywood films celebrated early Judaism and Christianity, leading clerics used radio and television to spread to million religious message and anticommunism
Libertarian Conservatives
... ...: freedom meant individual autonomy, limited government, and unregulated capitalism

Ideas in South and west who desired to pursue their economic fortunes free of government regulation, high taxes, and labor unions

Convinced Free World need to arm itself morally and intellectually not military for battle against communism

New Conservatives insisted that toleration of difference- a central belief of modern liberalism, offered no substitute for search for absolute truth
o Warned West was suffering from moral decay, called for return to civilization based on values grounded in Christian tradition and in timeless notions of good and evil
-Understood freedom as moral condition, decision by independent people, or governmental action forcing virtuous lives

... ...- progress and personal autonomy while new conserved emphasized tradition, community, and moral commitment
Modern Republicanism
Champion of business community and fiscal conservative, Ike worked to scale back government spending, including military

... ...: aimed to sever party's identification in minds of many Americans with Great Depression- New Deal programs expanded
Interstate highway system
Building of 41,000 miles ... ... ... to provide rapid exist routes from cities in event of nuclear war- justified multibillion dollar project

Automobile manufacturers, oil companies, suburban builders, construction unions supported it

Car symbolized freedom with individual mobility and private choice: modern versions of western pioneers, leaving behind urban crowds for open roads
Sputnik
1957: Soviets launched ...: first artificial earth satellite
National Defense Education Act
US Administration responded to Sputnik with ... ... ... ...: offered direct federal funding to higher education
Hydrogen bomb
Eisenhower approved armistice that ended fighting in Korea- failed to ease international tensions

1952: US exploded first ... ..., far more powerful than atomic

Both sides developed long-range bombers capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction around the world
Massive retaliation
1954: secretary of state John Foster Dulles announced updated version of doctrine of containment

... ...: declared that nay Soviet attack on an American ally would be countered by nuclear assault on Soviet Union itself

Risk that any small conflict could escalate into war that would destroy Us and Soviet Union- result in mutual assured destruction or MAD

Inspired widespread fear of impending nuclear war
-Government programs encouraging Americans to build bomb shelters in backyards and school drills that trained children to hide under desks aimed to convince Americans that nuclear war was survivable
Geneva Agreements
Peace conference in ... divided Vietnam temporarily into northern and southern districts- elections scheduled for 1956 to unify country

Anticommunist southern leader Ngo Dinh Diem, urged on by US- refused to hold elections which would have resulted in victory of Ho Chi Minh's communists, American aid poured into South Vietnam

Diem faced guerrilla revolt by communist-led National Liberation Front
Ho Chi Minh
In Vietnam French military effort to preserve France's Asian empire against Ho Chi Minh's nationalist forces

Anticommunist led US into deeper involvement

Eisenhower administration send billions of dollars to aid French, declined to send American troops in 1954: France had to agree to Vietnamese independence
Juvenile delinquency"
Rise of popular culture geared to emerging youth market suggested significant generation tensions

195 films Blackboard Jungle and Rebel without a Cause highlighted alienation of some young people from the world of adult respectability, spurred mid-1950s panic about ... ...

Teenagers wore leather jackets and danced to rock-and-roll music, hard driving rhythms and sexually provocative movements of black musicians and dancers to enthusiastic young white audiences

Elvis Presley: openly sexual performance style, immensely popular
The Beats
Interlocking directorate of corporate leaders, politicians, and military men dominated government and society made political democracy obsolete
-Sociologist David Riesman described Americans as other directed conformists who lacked inner resources to lead truly independent lives, William Whyte's organization men: incapable of independent thought

Cities had ... ...: small group of poets and writers, railed against mainstream culture

Protest against materialism and conformism written under hallucinogenic drugs
-Ginsberg nationally known when SF police in 1956 confiscated his book and arrested bookstore owners for selling obscene work

Rejecting work ethic, desperate materialism of suburban middle class, militarization of American life by Cold War

Celebrated impulsive action, immediate pleasure, drugs and sexual experimentation

Insisted personal and political repression were hallmarks of American society
LULAC
League of United Latin American Citizens: equivalent of NAACP, challenged restrictive housing, employment discrimination, and segregation of Latino students

Won in 1946 Mendez v. Westminster: California Supreme Court ordered schools of Orange County desegregated

State legislature repealed all school laws requiring racial segregation
-Governor Earl Warren convinced racial inequality had no place in American life
Thurgood Marshall
NAACP: leadership of attorneys Charles Hamilton Houston and ... ...- challenges to separate but equal doctrine from Plessy v. Ferguson

At firs: sought to gain admission to white institutions of higher learning
-1938: Supreme Court ordered university of Missouri Law School to admit Lloyd Gaines a black student, because the state had no such schools for blacks
-Missouri responded by setting up segregated law school
1950: Supreme Court unanimously ordered Herman Sweatt admitted to University of Texas Law School even though state had established a "school" for him in basement with 3 classrooms
Brown v. Board of Education
Marshall brought NAACP's support to local cases that had arisen when black parents challenged unfair school policies
-South Carolina: Levi Pearson, black farmer who brought lawsuit on behalf of children saw house burned to ground
-Clarendon case attacked segregation and unequal funding of schools- black children attended class with no running water or indoor toilets, n buses

Five combined into single appeal that reached Supreme court in 1952

First case- Oliver Brown went to court because daughter, third grader, forced to walk across dangerous railroad tracks each morning rather than being allowed to attend nearby white school

Lawsuit: ... ... ... ... of Topeka, Kansas in 1954

Even with same funding and facilities: Marshall insisted segregation was inherently unequal because it stigmatized one group of citizens as unfit to associate with others
-Eisenhower did not directly support his position but urged justices to consider "the problems of racial discrimination"
The Warren Court
New chief justice: Earl ..., created unanimity in Court- some members disliked segregation but feared decision to outlaw would spark widespread violence

May 17, 1954: declared segregation in public education violated equal protection of laws guaranteed by Fourteenth Amendment

Called for hearings as to how segregated schooling should be dismantled

Modern civil rights movement- decision ensured that it had backing of federal courts
Rosa Parks
Mass action against Jim Crow reappeared in 1950s

December 1, 1955: ... .., black tailor's assistant in Montgomery, Alabama department store, refused to surrender her seat on city bus to white rider as required by local law

Arrest sparked yearlong bus boycott because of "seamstress with tired feet"- symbol of ordinary blacks' determination to resist daily injustices and indignities of Jim Crow South

She had served as secretary to local leader of NAACP, and was one of few blacks in Montgomery to cast ballot
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Hundreds of blacks gathered in local church and vowed to refuse to ride buses until accorded equal treatment

381 days, despite legal harassment and occasional violence, black maids, janitors, teachers, and students walked to destinations or rode in informal network of taxis

November 1956: Supreme Court ruled segregation in public transportation unconstitutional
Martin Luther King Jr.
26 year old ... ... ... ...: arrived in Montgomery to become pastor of Baptist church, as movement's national symbol

Night of first protest meeting said, "We, the disinherited of this land, we who have been oppressed so long, are tried of going through long night of captivity. And now we are reaching out for the daybreak of freedom and justice and equality."

Language of freedom resonated in speeches of civil rights leader

1964: civil rights activists established freedom schools for black children across Mississippi, lessons began with students begin asked to define the word
-Liberation from years of deference to and fear of whites, freedom of the mind

Enjoying political rights and economic opportunities, eradicating historic wrongs such as segregation, disenfranchisement, confinement to low-wage jobs, threats of violence
-Right to participate in consumer culture, to be addressed with respect not as boy or auntie
Peaceful civil disobedience
"I Have a Dream" speech of 1963 began by invoking unfulfilled promise of emancipation, closed with cry from black spiritual, "Free at last!"

Studied Thoreau and Gandhi on peaceful civil disobedience, philosophy of struggle in which evil must be met with good, hate with Christian love, and violence with peaceful demands for change

Christian themes resonated deeply in both black communities and broader culture
-Invoked Bible to preach justice and forgiveness, even toward those "who desire to deprive you of freedom"

Appealed to white American by stressing protesters' love of country and devotion to national values

Also used liberation of Africa to motivate blacks in America to gain own liberation

1956: King formed Southern Christian Leadership Conference- coalition of black ministers and civil rights activists to press for desegregation
The Southern Manifesto
Supreme Court ruling indicated that without national blacking- local action might not be enough o overturn Jim Crow, white South's refusal to accept Brown decision showed this

Supreme Court in 1955 declared that desegregation should proceed with all deliberate speed, encouraged campaigns of massive resistance that paralyzed civil rights progress in South

1956: 82 of 106 southern congressmen signed ... ... .... denounced Brown decision as clear abuse of judicial power, called for resistance to forced integration by any lawful means

Strategy of closing any public schools ordered to desegregate and offering funds to enable white pupils to attend private institutions
Little Rock
1957: Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas used National Guard to prevent the court-ordered integration of ... ...'s Central High School- Eisenhower dispatched federal troops to city

Solider of 101st Airborne Division escorted nine black children into school, showed that federal government would not allow flagrant violation of court orders

Americans leaders had worried about impact of segregation on country's international reputation, global reaction to Brown decision was positive, but slow pace of change led to criticism that embarrassed American diplomats
Richard Nixon
speech: "What Freedom Means to Us"
1958: during Cold War thaw, US and Soviet exchanged national exhibitions

triumph during 1950s of conception of freedom centered on economic abundance and consumer choice within context of traditional family life

"Include in our definition of rich the millions of America's wage earners"

Factory workers can afford to buy a house, television set, car
-Must recognize USSR has not industrialized like US, but that they have advanced in technology more

-Welcome Soviets into consumer economy, win for all

US: closest to ideal of prosperity for all in classless society, highest standard of living of any people in world's history
-Social Security, right to join union, working on racial discrimination problem, freedom of speech, voting, religion, freedom to travel within country and abroad
-Do not wish to impose democracy on anyone else
Southern Manifesto
Drew on long-standing ideas of local autonomy as basis of individual liberty and claimed segregation was old southern tradition favored by whites and blacks

"WE regard decisions of Supreme Court in school cases as a clear abuse of judicial power", violation of authority of Congress and Constitution

Cites Plessy v. Ferguson as part of life of people confirmed to habits, traditions, way of life, "elemental humanity and commonsense"

Supreme Court: substituted personal political and social ideas for established law, destroying amicable relations between white and Negro races
Howl
... by Allen Ginsberg

Wrote of American life through image of Moloch, idol in Bible to whom parents sacrificed children

Moloch was symbol of militarist, materialistic society that stifled spontaneity and human feeling

became manifesto of beat generation

Moloch: prison, judgment, war government, machinery, poverty, sexless hydrogen, robot apartments, invisible suburbia
Martin Luther King Jr. and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
"We are American citizens... determined to apply our citizenship to fullness of its meaning... love for democracy"

Negroes inflicted with paralysis of crippling fears on buses in our community, oppressed because of sheer fact that they were Negroes

-One of finest citizens in Montgomery arrested for refusing to give up seat to white person
-Mrs. Rosa Parks: height of character, depth of Christian commitment and devotion to Jesus

"There comes a time when people get tired of being trampled over by the iron feet of oppression"
-Not advocating violence, weapon of protest

This is glory of American democracy- right to protest for right

Meeting violence not with violence, being better than oppressors

"Bold determination to gain justice on the buses in this city"
-We are not wrong- because we have the backing of the Supreme Court, the Constitution, of God, of Jesus- justice is not a lie, love has meaning

"We must keep God in the forefront"
"Justice is love correcting that which revolts against love"
This is process of legislation and education, we are going to stick together