Chapter 1 Study Guide

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Aztec
the people of this culture, who entered the Valley of Mexico in the 1200's, built great cities or ceremonial centers similar to those of the Maya and the Inca.
mississippian
this culture created the first empire of the Americas. Located in modern-day southern Mexico, this empire arose as early as 1200 B.C. and mysteriously collapsed around 400 B.C.
adena and hopewell
these two cultures built huge mounds, some of which took the form of effigies-the representation of animals-that can only be seen clearly from an aerial view
inca
the people of this culture built an empire that stretched nearly 2500 miles along the western coast of South America. this empire was flourishing at the time that Christopher Columbus first reached American shores in 1492.
maya
From approximately A.D. 250-900, this culture, built a thriving civilization in what is now Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula.
hohokam and anasazi
these two cultures introduced crops to the Southwest.
mississippian
this mound building society, which still flourished at the time of Christopher Columbus' arrival to the Americas, constructed gigantic pyramidal mounds east of the Mississippi River.
california
the Kashaya Pomo lived in what is now the state of?
adobe
all of the following are important aspects of Kwakiutl culture EXCEPT: adobe, totems, fishing, or potlatches?
they grew their own food
how were the lives of the ancient peoples of the Americas changed by the development of agriculture?
the southwest
Which region of the present-day United States is the native home of the Pueblo?
woodlands
the native environment of the Iroquois consisted of?
medicines
according to the views and values of most native American peoples, an individual could NOT claim ownership rights to..
kinship was to ensure strong continuation of tribal customs
describe the systems of kinship and division of labor found in early Native American societies.
plantation
in the late 1400's, a West African might be enslaved and sent to the island of Principe or Sao Tomé to work on a portuguese ____?
lineage
in the late 1400's, ties among people of the same ______ formed the basis of most aspects of life in rural West Africa.
islam
______, which was founded in Arabia in 622 by the prophet Mohammad, spread rapidly across the Middle East to North and West Africa.
benin
in the 1400's, the forest kingdom of ______ dominated a large region around the Niger Delta. Leading the expansion was a forceful oba (ruler) named Ewuare.
savanna
in the late 1400's, direct trade between the Portuguese and the coastal peoples of West Africa caused many African forest societies to grow in power and wealth and the trading power of kingdoms located on the _______ to decline.
songhai
by the 1500's, the ____ empire was at its height, having gained power and wealth by gaining control of the trans-Sahara trade. it was famed not only for its military might but also for its important center of learning, the city of Timbuktu.
kongo
in the late 1400's, the forest kingdom of _____ arose o the lower Zaire (Congo) River. it was made up of a series of small kingdoms organized under a single leader and held together by a system of royal marriages, taxes, and, when necessary, war and tribute.
trade routes bypassed the old trade routes to a crossed the sahra and the portugese began the european trade in west africa slaves
what were the two main consequences, for West Africa and for the Americas, of early contacts between West African and Portuguese traders?
true
T or F: under the "armchair navigator," Marco Polo, Portugal took the lead in developing and testing innovative sailing technologies in the 1400's.
true
True or False: in the 1400's, the majority of Europeans made up the bottom of the social hierarchy.
false
true or false: in the 1400's, the majority of Europeans made up of the bottom of the social hierarchy.
false
T or F: the costly nature and ultimate failure of the campaigns of the Renaissance led to an increase in the power of European monarchs at the expense of the nobility and the papacy.
true
T or F: in the early 1500's, the Reformation divided Christianity in Western Europe into Catholicism and Protestantism.
false
T or F: the "reconquista" of the Iberian Peninsula was achieved when Queen Isabella of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon units their kingdoms.
true
identify two factors that encouraged European interest is overseas exploration during the 1400's and 1500's. Explain how each encouraged this interest.
true
T or F: the main goals of Christopher Columbus's first exploration of the Americas were to find gold, claim lands for Italy, and spread Christianity.
true
T or F: the Taino were the first Native Americans with whom Columbus came into contact.
false
T or F: the European system of colonization was established during settlement of the americas.
true
T or F: the Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement established by the pope in an effort to settle disagreements about expansion.
true
T or F: in the 1500s, food was the main contribution of the Americas to the Columbian Exchange.
the olmec
which Native American group depended on the sea for a living?
by hunting big animals
How did the first people to arrive in the Americas support themselves?
a surplus of food
What was needed before cities and complex civilizations could develop in the Americas?
by selling slaves
How did the African kingdoms of Songhai, Benin, and Kongo all gain power?
catholics and protestants
between which two groups did the Treaty of Tordesillas prevent conflict?
droughts
after the europeans arrived in the Caribbean, what caused the deaths of countless Native Americans?
kivas, pottery, and multistory buildings
What are the Pueblo known for?
West african slaves were born into slavery
how was slavery in west africa different from later slavery in the Americas?
the renaissance
which of the following led to a new confidence in human achievement?
first person to sail around the southern tip of africa
which description fits Prince Henry of Portugal, called "the navigator"?
true
T or F: Songhai, Benin, and Kongo were all powerful African kingdoms that were enriched by foreign trade.
false- products
T or F: during the crusades, contact with the east changed life in Europe by introducing new _political ideas_
true
T or F: the treaty of tordesillas involved an imaginary line dividing lands in the Western Hemisphere that could be claimed by ___Christians and Muslims____
false- agriculture
T or F: the different ways of life of early native american peoples resulted mainly from differences in their ___trade relationships___.
false- olmec
T or F: the first empire in the americas was established by the __Incas__.
true
T or F: the first people to live in north america supported themselves by __hunting small animals__
false
T or F: the columbian exchange refers to the transfer of __plants and animals__ between East and West
true
T or F: the first European nation to establish colonies in the Americas was Portugal.
true
T or F: in west africa, people were born into slavery but could escape slavery in a number of ways
false
T or F: the pueblo were farmers who used irrigation systems to water their crops.
woodworking tools
the pueblo are known for al of the following except: pottery, kivas, woodworking tools, or multistory dwellings.
desert farming
the hohokam and anasazi are best known for their development of ...
an increase in enslaved Native Americans
all of the following resulted from the Atlantic slave trade except: an increase in enslaved native americans, the exportation of slaves from africa, the establishment of sugar-plantation colonies, or damage to many african societies
christian control of the holy land
the crusades led to all of the following except: decreased power for the pope, christian control of the holy land, increased power for european monarchs, or increased trade between europe and asia
most people lived in small villages
one similarity between european and african societies in the 1400s was that ..
taino
the first native americans that columbus encountered called themselves..
support for democratic ideals in government
columbus's voyages to the americas did not lead to..
access to north america was no longer possible on foot
early migration to the americas from asia ended about 10,000 years ago because..
the development of agriculture
the development of complex societies in the americas was first made possible by..
portugese
the model of using West African slaves as the labor force on plantation was developed by the..