Terms in this set (59)
Planetary-scale _____ created the Earth's secondary atmosphere, which consisted mostly of ____ gases.
outgassing; water vapor and carbon dioxide
In the early history of life on Earth, _____ organisms had an advantage over other forms in that they could obtain transform chemical energy contained in inorganic substances into energy they could utilize for their life processes.
The release of molecular oxygen by oxygenic photosynthesis and the subsequent formation of _____ in Earth's atmosphere eventually resulted in enough reduction of solar ultraviolet radiation at the Earth's surface to allow life to evolve outside of the oceans.
What happened about 65 millions before present that apparently led to a mass extinction of large reptiles, like the dinosaurs, allowing land mammals to become the dominant lifeforms?
Large meteor collision causing glaciation due to smoke from fires and dust from the impact.
Pre-industrial humans affected the atmosphere in which of the following ways?
Cultivation of land
What limited the impact of pre-industrial human societies on the global environment?
The total world human population was small.
Renewable energy forms were the most common types of energy used.
Environmental impacts were locally restricted due to populations being concentrated in widely spaced settlements.
• Although coal was used as a heat source before industrialization, the invention of the _____ by James Watt (after whom a unit of measurement for power was named, apparently) caused a significant increase in the consumption of coal and the dawn of industrialization, where human and animal labor were supplanted by machinery.
• Per capita resource consumption
• Pollution produced per unit of resource consumed
• Efficiency of consumption of resources
• The more people there are, the more pollution that gets emitted.
• Amount of resource consumed by one person
Population = The more people there are, the more pollution that gets emitted.
Per capita resource consumption = Amount of resource consumed by one person
Pollution produced per unit of resource consumed = Efficiency of consumption of resources
From the equation for total pollution produced by a population,
Total pollution produced = C × r × ap
the physical units of the "total pollution produced" work out to:
The IPCC created four scenarios of future population growth, based on whether there was development that was more globalized vs. localized, and whether growth emphasized economic development vs. environmental preservation/sustainability. Which one created the most future population growth?
Local development emphasizing economic growth ("fragmented world")
The _______ spread a cloud of gases and dust particles around the universe, which later condensed into galaxies of stars and planets.
Which of the following are "permanent", or "fixed", gases?
This layer of the atmosphere is where we have weather, clouds, and people.
In the entire Earth's atmosphere, the pressure and density both ____ with increasing altitude.
If we increase the pressure around an air parcel at constant temperature, the volume occupied by the molecules in this parcel will _ decrease __, the density _ increase _, the concentration of a pollutant __ increase __, and the mixing ratio of a pollutant ___ not change _. (decrease / increase / not change )
What happens to ozone formation during the night (no sun)?
It stops as there is no more UV radiation to photolyze O2
Why are catalytic cycles so important?
Because a small amount of a catalyst X can destroy a large amount of ozone
Sun sets over Antarctica
Polar Vortex form
Ozone Hole forms
What role do Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) play in the formation of the ozone hole?
1 = The Sun sets over Antarctica
2 = The stratosphere cools and the Polar Vortex forms
3 = PSCs form
4 = CFCs are emitted by humans
5 = CFCs are transported and destroyed in the stratosphere, thus increasing levels of Cl reservoir species
6 = Sun rises, Cl2 is converted to Cl and ClO
7 = Cl reservoir species are converted to Cl2
8 = The polar vortex breaks up and the ozone hole disappears
9 = The ozone hole forms
actives species WITH PSC
reservoir species without PSC WILL NOT DESTROYING OZONE
HCL 60 CLONO 39 CL AND CLO 1
CFC's are broken up in the stratosphere by
1.UV radia?on Cl and ClO is formed
In early winter as the sun sets , the polar
stratospheric vortex develops and the air in the vortex cools
The polar vortex entraps ozone and the different chlorine
At polar sunrise , Cl
2 photodissociates, and large
amounts of Cl and ClO are formed
4.(August)The "ozone hole" soon covers an area larger than
the stratosphere slowly warms up, and the
polar vortex begins to destabilize
The vortex breaks down and the ozone hole is filled in with
ozone richer air from lower la?tudes
Water vapor (H2O), Carbon dioxide (CO2)
: Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Argon (Ar), Neon (Ne), Helium (He), ...
Methane (CH4), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3), ...
t UP WITH HIGHT UP
T D EOTH HIGHT UP
WHY DOES THE AIR COOL WHEN IT RISES
IN ATMOSPHERE, PRESSURE DECREASE WHEN ALTITUDE INCREASE CAUSING RISING AIR TO EXPAND
WHAT HAPPEN TO ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE?
SUNLIGHT UNDER ATMOSPHERE
REFLECTION FROM THE GROUND SNOW CLOUD
ABSORPTION BY Gases SUCH AS OZONE AND GROUND
SCATTERING BY GAS MOLECULES
MORE MOLECULE MORE ABSORPTION
LESS LIGHT GO THOUGHT
LONGER PATH MORE ABSORPTION
LESS LIGHT GO THOUGHT
WHAT IS THE INFLUENCE OF CLOUDS ON THE GLOBAL CLIMATE ?
LIGHT IS SCATTERED BY WATER
ALL COLORS OF VISIBLE LIGHT ARE SCATTERED THE SAME WAY
RESULTING IN SCATTERED IN WHITE LIGHT
means emission intensity peaks at a shorter wavelength
means emitting more total energy
. higher temperature
important absorbing gases
: O2 (UV), O3 (UV, IR), H2O (IR), CO2 (IR)
High cloud (cirrus, ice crystals, very thin):
-> warming (why? Greenhouse effect & low albedo)
Low cloud (cumulus, water droplet, thick
cooling (why? Greenhouse effect but high albedo)
Net effect of cloud:
cooling the Earth
How about aerosol/haze?
? Generally cooling effect. (e.g., volcano eruption)
CO2, H2O, CH4, N2O (laughing gas), CFC, O3
Why is ozone most abundant at 20-30 km altitude?
UV radiation intensity & Oxygen concentration
UV radiation: wavelength
: UV-A > UV-B > UV-C (most dangerous)
most UV-B and all UV-C, but no UV-A