a subatomic particle with a neutral charge, weighs 1 dalton/amu, and is found in the nucleus
a subatomic particle with a positive charge, weighs 1 dalton/amu, and is found in the nucleus
a subatomic particle with a negative charge, weighs 0 dalton/amu, and is found orbiting the nucleus
one of the atomic forms of an element, with each form varying in neutron amount and atomic numbers
the average distances of electrons from the nucleus, which correlates to electrons' energy levels
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond where the electrons are not shared equally; on atom is more electronegative than the other
a weak bond formed when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to on electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
van der Waals interactions
weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about by localized charge fluctuations
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1°C
Heat of vaporization
the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from liquid to gas
when liquid evaporates, and the surface of the liquid than remains behind cools down
How are isotopes used in biology?
Radioactive isotopes are used to date fossils and label chemical substances in metabolic processes
What happens when electrons change levels?
Electrons absorb or lose energy when they change energy levels.
What is the significance of valence numbers?
Valence numbers determine the chemical behavior of an atom.
Why is H bonding so important to water's properties?
Properties such as cohesion, adhesion, surface tension, and high specific heat would onto exist without hydrogen bonding.
Why is cohesion important to living things?
Cohesion helps to transport water and nutrients to plants.
Why is moderation of temperature important to living things?
Moderation of temperature prevents living organisms from overheating and stabilizes temperature in bodies of water.
Why is expansion when freezing important to living things?
Expansion when freezing prevents large bodies of water from completely freezing over, thus protecting underwater sea life.
Why is versatile solvent important to living things?
Versatile solvent means water is strong enough to dissolve necessary enzymes into bodily fluids, such as blood and saliva, without dissolving cell membranes.
compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements, but different structures and properities
isomers with the same covalent partnerships, but they differ in their spatial arrangements
>CO; carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond; Ketones if carbonyl is within a carbon skeleton, Aldehydes if the carbonyl is at the end of the carbon skeleton
-COOH; oxygen atom double bonded to a carbon atom that is bonded to a hydroxyl group; carboxylic acids
-OPO₃²⁻; phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms, one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton, two oxygen carry negative charges; organic phosphates
condensation reaction/dehydration reaction
two molecules are covalently bonded together through the loss of a water molecule
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid with one or more double bonds between carbons, liquid at room temperature
a lipid with only two fatty acids attached to glycerol, with the third hydroxyl group joined to a phosphate group
a common component of animal cell membranes and is the precursor for which other steroids are synthesized
the resulting covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another, with the removal of a water molecule
What are the general roles of carbohydrates?
The two roles are to supply energy and help form cell structures.
How does the alpha differ from the beta form of glucose?
In the alpha version, the hydroxyl group is attached to the carbon-1 in the same manner as the hydroxyl group attached to the carbon04. In the betas version, the hydroxyl group is switched.
monomers of nuclide acids composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose (five-carbon sugar), and a phosphate group.
a nitrogenous base with a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms; cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
a larger nitrogenous base with six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring; adenine and guanine
What types of nitrogenous bases belong to DNA or RNA?
Thymine is only found in DNA and uracil is only found in RNA. Adenine, cytosine, and guanine are found in both.
What's the difference between DNA and RNA?
DNA lacks a oxygen atom on the second carbon in its ring.
What makes fats hydrophobic?
The non-polar C-H bonds in the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids make fats hydrophobic.
How do phospholipids interact in an aqueous solution?
The hydrophilic heads stay on the outside of the bilayer, facing the water. The hydrophobic tails stay in the interior of the bilayer, away from the water.
List the several functions of proteins.
Proteins preform several functions including transport, storage, structural support, speeding up chemical retains, cellular communications, movement, and defense against foreign substances.
What are the three properties used to classify amino acids?
Nonpolar, polar, and electrically charged are the three properties of side chains used to classify amino acids.
What determines the primary structure of a protein?
Primary structure is determined by inherited by genetic information.
Describe the "Secondary" level of protein structure.
The coils and folds formed by the hydrogen bonds between repeating sections of the polypeptide backbone.
Describe the "Tertiary" level of protein structure.
Overall shape of a polypeptide, resulting from interactions between side chains.
Describe the "Quaternary" level of protein structure.
Overall protein structure that results from aggregation of the polypeptide subunits.
Describe the two functions of DNA in a cell.
DNA provides directions for its own replication and it directs RNA synthesis.
a chemical agent that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction, without being consumed by the reaction
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
How is the substrate held in the active site?
The substrate is held by weak interactions, such as hydrogen and ionic bonds.
What are the effects of temperature and pH on enzyme activity?
Each type of enzyme as an optimal temperature and pH level. If they reach too far from its optimal environment, the enzyme will denature.
mimics that reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from the active sites