Evolution and Taxonomy Test

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Terms in this set (...)

Directional Selection
a change in frequency of a single trait in one direction in a population
Analogous Structures
structures in different organisms that resemble each other in function but have different ancestors
Convergent Evolution
organisms from different evolutionary lines that evolve similar traits because of similar environmental circumstances
Which describes an African Butterfly species that exists in two strikingly different color patterns?
Disruptive Selection
What describes a population?
All the Robins in Houston, Texas
A difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms
they differ in the source of energy they uses to produce organic molecule
Taxonomy
Classifying organisms according to the similarities in characteristics and evolutionary history
Which is a pair of structures that are analogous?
insect wing and bird wing
In a population of finches in which one group
has a short, parrotlike beak, and another group has a long, narrow beak, what process has probably occurred?
disruptive selection
In genetic drift, why do allele frequencies change?
chance
What causes a scarcity of resources and a growing population?
increased competition
Binomial Nomenclature
method regarding the scientific naming of organisms
Vestigial Structures
anatomical structures that appear to be derives from a functional structure in an ancestor, but that currently do not serve an important function
Adaptation
the process by which a population becomes better suited to its environment
Homologous Structures
structures that have similar embryological origins but are adapted for different purposes
Gene Pool
all the genes of all members of a particular population
The half life of a radioactive isotope...
does not change
The half life of carbon 14 is 5,730 years. How much of an initial amount of this substance would remain after 17,190 years, which is three times its half life?
one-eighth
How can the age of fossils, such as those of bones, can sometime be determined by?
measuring the amount of a specific radioactive isotope in radioactive isotope in the fossil bones
Isotopes are forms of the same element that differ in...
number of neutrons
As we move through the biological hierarchy from the kingdom to the species level, organisms...
become more similar in appearance
The scientific name of an organism...
is the same for scientists all around the world
The correct order of the biological hierarchy
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
(King peter called out for good swimmers)
What causes variations of genotypes?
recombination of genes as a result of sexual reproduction
Large, brightly colored tail feathers of the male peacock are valuable to him because...
they attract potential mates
Disruptive Selection
the type of selection that eliminates the most common phenotypes
Reproductive isolation differs from geographic isolation in that...
members of the same species are not physically separated in reproductive isolation, whereas they are separated in geographic isolation
Gradualism
the hypothesis that evolution occurs at a slow, constant rate