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environmental vocab chapter 2
Terms in this set (32)
a human-centered view of our relationship with the environment
belief that all creatures have rights and values; being centered on nature rather than humans
capitalist market economy
an economy in which buyers and sellers interact to determine which goods and services to produce, how much of them to produce, and how to distribute them
centrally planned economy
an economy in which the government decides how economic resources will be allocated.
Politics is driven entirely by economic interests. Class struggle between capitalists and labor. Policy doesn't serve aggregate welfare.
uses surveys to determine how much people are willing to pay to protect or restore a resource
cost benefit analysis
A decision-making technique that involves weighing the costs of a given action against the benefits of that action.
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.
Well-being and flourishing of all life have intrinsic value; richness and diversity of life contribute; may involve decrease in human population; humans don't have the right to reduce life
the practice of designating on a product how it was grown, harvested, or manufactured, so that consumers are aware of the processes involved and can differentiate between brands that use processes believed to be environmentally beneficial and those that do not
people that apply the principles of ecology to economics
the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management
a social system that converts resources into sources
Natural services or natural capital that support life on the earth and are essential to the quality of human life and the functioning of the world's economies.
Ralph Waldo Emersom
philosopher that espoused transcendentalism
Believe that economies are unsustainable if population growth is not reduced and resource use is not made more efficient.
an economic side effect of a good or service that generates benefits or costs to someone other than the person deciding how much to produce or consume
GPI: Genuine Progress Indicator= GDP + Benefits not included in market transactions (ie volunteering) - harmful environmental and social costs
a material commodity
the total value of goods and services produced within a country in a year, divided by the countrys total population.
a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficiently
English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism (1806-1873)
a theory of economics that explains market prices in terms of consumer preferences for particular commiditys
non market value
Values not usually included in the price of a good or service
the practice of buying and selling government-issued marketable emissions allowances to conduct environmentally harmful activities
british art critic, poet and writer who criticized industrialized cities and their pollution. believed that people no longer appreciated the environments spiritual or aesthetic benefits
work done by one person or group that benefits another in a form of business
steady state economics
stable economics in which there is no growing or shrinking. these are designed to mirror natural ecological systems
a type of economy in which human groups live off the land with little or no surplus
the collective body of ideas that members of a culture generally share concerning the ultimate shape and substance of their reality
henry thoreau and walt whitman
authors who espoused transcendentalism
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