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Determined by external pressure and the thermal motion of the components of the substance. A large external pressure on the substance tends to bring the particles close to each other. A large thermal motion of the particles tends to draw them away from each other
Their size determines the strength of the interparticle attractive forces (the larger they are the stronger the attractive forces)
In addition to their size, the attractive forces depend on the charge density of the ions
The ratio of the electric charge of the ion to the size of the ion. Small ions with high charge have high charge density. Large ions with low charge have low charge density. The attractive forces are stronger between cations and anions ions with high charge densities.
To determine strength of attractive forces between the molecules the size of the molecules, their polarity (dipole moment), and their shape.
Types of Attractive Forces
Interatomic, Interionic, Intermolecular, Ion-Molecule, Ion-Atom, Atom-Molecule
The attractive force between atoms in a molecule. Can also be called intramolecular force because any type of force within a molecule is considered an intramolecular force. (covalent bonds, metallic bonds, and London forces)
The attractive force between ions of opposite charge. Stronger than any other type of attractive forces of matter. (ionic bonds)
The attractive force between molecules. In general they are weaker than any other type of attractive forces of matter (London forces, Dipole-Dipole forces, Dipole-induced dipole forces, and Hydrogen bonds)
The attractive forces between the atoms within a molecule or a charged molecule (polyatomic ion) are relatively strong interatomic forces.
The attractive force that holds the atoms of metals together are very strong interatomic forces
The attractive forces between the atoms of a noble gas in its liquid or solid state are relatively very weak interatomic forces (molecules with zero dipole moment (nonpolar molecules)) Strength of the forces increases as the size of the molecules increases. The higher the melting/boiling point the stronger the attractive forces
The attractive forces between the ions within a solid crystal are quite strong forces. When an ionic substance melts, boils, or dissolves in a solvent, the interionic forces of attraction become weak as the distance between the ions becomes larger.
An attractive force between two polar molecules. If two molecules have about the same size and similar shape, the dipole-dipole intermolecular attractive force increases with increasing polarity. Expect to have higher boiling points for substances made of molecules with a high dipole moment when all other factors (size and shape) are same/similar.
Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces
An attractive force between a polar molecule and a nonpolar molecule. Weaker than dipole-dipole forces. Important example is the force between an oxygen molecule and a water molecule.
An attractive force between a hydrogen atom in a molecule and an oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen atom in a different molecule. Special type of attraction between the unprotected nucleus of a hydrogen atom in a polar bond and an unshared electron pair on a nearby electronegative atom. Can be inter or intramolecular.
Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonds
Bonded atoms belong to two different molecules in hydrogen bonds
Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds
Bonded atoms belong to the same molecule in hydrogen bonds
It exists in every aqueous solution of soluble salts. Many biological functions depend on this kind of attractive force. (aka ion-dipole force) the ion-dipole forces between the positive or negative charge of the ion and the partial charges on the water molecules
Van Der Waals Force
A weak attractive force between two interacting particles that depends on the inverse sixth power of their separation (r)
The measure of a liquid's resistance to flow. The stronger the intermolecular forces of attraction between the molecules of a liquid substance, the greater the viscosity of the substance.
The measure of a liquid's resistance to spread out (increase its surface area) The stronger the intermolecular forces of attraction between molecules of the liquid substance, the greater the surface tension of the substance. Measured as the energy that is required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a square meter
The relatively slow change of a liquid to a gas, through only its surface
Water molecules from the gaseous state collide wither water molecules on the surface of the liquid water, where they are captured and again become liquid water molecules
The number of water molecules that pass from the liquid state to the gas stater per unit time and per unit surface.
The gaseous water pressure we measure at the equilibrium state at 25°C. Defined by considering a dynamic equilibrium between the two physical states of the substance. (lnP=-A(1/T)+B)(A=∆Hvap/R)
Use this to find ∆Hvap of a liquid if we know its vapor pressure at two different temperatures (T1 and T2). Because ∆Hvap is a function of temperature the value of ∆Hvap will refer to a temperature that will be between T1 and T2. It can also be used to find the vapor pressure P2 of a liquid at temperature T2, if we know its vapor pressure P1 at temperature T1 and its ∆Hvap at a temperature T between T1 and T2
The rapid change of a liquid to a gas, taking place not only through its surface but also throughout its whole volume. It occurs at the temperature at which the vapor pressure of water equals the external pressure. It only occurs in container open to the atmosphere.
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid becomes equal to the total external pressure
Normal Boiling Point
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid becomes equal to 1atm=760mmHg (water's normal boiling point at 100°C
Phase of a Substance
A sample of matter with specific chemical composition and the same properties throughout its volume
Each phase has different properties-- not because of different compositions, but because of different crystal structure
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