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65 terms

Guide to Good Food Chapter 2 Nutritional Needs

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Nutrient
a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body.
Nutrition
the study of how your body uses the nutrients in the foods you eat
Malnutrition
a lack of the right proportions of nutrients over an extended period
Deficiency Disease
illness cause by the lack of a sufficient amount of a nutrient
Dietary Supplement
purified nutrients that are manufactured or extracted from natural sources
Phytochemical
compounds from plants that are active in the human body
Fortified Food
foods to which nutrients are added in amounts greater than what would naturally occur in the food
Carbohydrate
the body's chief source of energy
Glucose
the form of sugar carried in the bloodstream for energy use throughout the body
Fiber
a form of complex carbohydrates from plants that humans cannot digest
Fat
important energy sources
Fatty Acid
chemical chains that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Hydrogenation
adds hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids in liquid oils
Trans Fatty Acid
fatty acids with odd molecular shapes
Cholesterol
a fatlike substance found in every cell in the body
Protein
chemical compounds that are found in every body cell
Amino Acid
small units found in protein
Protein- energy Malnutrition (PEM)
a condition that occurs when your diet does not contain enough protein and calories
Vitamin
complex organic substances
Fat-Soluble Vitamin
dissolve in fats. they are carried by the fats in foods and can be stored in the fatty tissues of the body.
Water-Soluble Vitamin
dissolve in water.
Night Blindness
a reduced ability to see in dim light
Rickets
caused by vitamin D deficiences. crooked legs and misshapen breastbones
Dietary Antioxidant
substance in foods that significantly reduces the harmful effects of oxygen on normal body functions
Scurvy
A prolonged defficiency from little Vitamin C
Beriberi
a severe thiamin deficiency
Pellagra
too little niacin in the diet
Anemia
condition that reduces the number of red blood cells in the bloodstreams
Mineral
inorganic substances that make up the other 4 percent
Macromineral
minerals needed in the diet in amounts of 100 or more millegrams each day
Trace Element
minerals needed in amounts less than 100 milligrams per day
Osteoporosis
bones began to weaken by the draw on their calcium become porous and brittle
Hypertension
high blood pressure
Goiter
visible enlargement of the thyroid glands
Digestion
is the bodily process of breaking food down into simpler compounds the body can use
Absorption
is the process of taking in nutrients and making them part of the body
Peristalsis
a wave of contraction
Saliva
a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth
Metabolism
the chemical process that takes place in the cells after the body absorbs nutrients.
saturated
concerning fats and health, those fats associated strongly with heart and artery disease; mainly fats from animal sources
unsaturated fat
fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of its fatty acid chainsdi=
beta-carotene
an orange vegetable pigment that the body can change into the active form of vitamin a, one of the antioxidant nutrients
citrus
any of numerous fruits of the genus Citrus having thick rind and juicy pulp
dietary antioxidant
a substance in food that significantly decreases the damaging effects of reactive compounds, such as reactive forms of oxygen and nitrogen, on tissue functioning
thiamin
a B vitamin that prevents beriberi
riboflavin
a B vitamin that prevents skin lesions and weight loss
niacin
a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
fasting
going without food for a period of time
vegetarians
people who omit meat, fish, and poultry from their diets. Some vegetarians also omit milk products and eggs.
pantothenic acid
a vitamin of the vitamin B complex that performs an important role in the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates and certain amino acids
minerals
Substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
trace elements
elements or minerals needed in very small amounts
osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
phosphorus
a multivalent nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs commonly in inorganic phosphate rocks and as organic phosphates in all living cells
magnesium
a light silver-white ductile bivalent metallic element
osmosis
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
enzymes
protein substances that speed up chemical reactions.
thyroid
located near the base of the neck
decay
the organic phenomenon of rotting
water
a fluid necessary for the life of most animals and plants
digestion
the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body
peristalsis
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
villi
Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed
metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes