a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body.
the study of how your body uses the nutrients in the foods you eat
a lack of the right proportions of nutrients over an extended period
illness cause by the lack of a sufficient amount of a nutrient
purified nutrients that are manufactured or extracted from natural sources
compounds from plants that are active in the human body
foods to which nutrients are added in amounts greater than what would naturally occur in the food
the body's chief source of energy
the form of sugar carried in the bloodstream for energy use throughout the body
a form of complex carbohydrates from plants that humans cannot digest
important energy sources
chemical chains that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
adds hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids in liquid oils
Trans Fatty Acid
fatty acids with odd molecular shapes
a fatlike substance found in every cell in the body
chemical compounds that are found in every body cell
small units found in protein
Protein- energy Malnutrition (PEM)
a condition that occurs when your diet does not contain enough protein and calories
complex organic substances
dissolve in fats. they are carried by the fats in foods and can be stored in the fatty tissues of the body.
dissolve in water.
a reduced ability to see in dim light
caused by vitamin D deficiences. crooked legs and misshapen breastbones
substance in foods that significantly reduces the harmful effects of oxygen on normal body functions
A prolonged defficiency from little Vitamin C
a severe thiamin deficiency
too little niacin in the diet
condition that reduces the number of red blood cells in the bloodstreams
inorganic substances that make up the other 4 percent
minerals needed in the diet in amounts of 100 or more millegrams each day
minerals needed in amounts less than 100 milligrams per day
bones began to weaken by the draw on their calcium become porous and brittle
high blood pressure
visible enlargement of the thyroid glands
is the bodily process of breaking food down into simpler compounds the body can use
is the process of taking in nutrients and making them part of the body
a wave of contraction
a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth
the chemical process that takes place in the cells after the body absorbs nutrients.
concerning fats and health, those fats associated strongly with heart and artery disease; mainly fats from animal sources
fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of its fatty acid chainsdi=
an orange vegetable pigment that the body can change into the active form of vitamin a, one of the antioxidant nutrients
any of numerous fruits of the genus Citrus having thick rind and juicy pulp
a substance in food that significantly decreases the damaging effects of reactive compounds, such as reactive forms of oxygen and nitrogen, on tissue functioning
a B vitamin that prevents beriberi
a B vitamin that prevents skin lesions and weight loss
a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
going without food for a period of time
people who omit meat, fish, and poultry from their diets. Some vegetarians also omit milk products and eggs.
a vitamin of the vitamin B complex that performs an important role in the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates and certain amino acids
Substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
elements or minerals needed in very small amounts
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
a multivalent nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs commonly in inorganic phosphate rocks and as organic phosphates in all living cells
a light silver-white ductile bivalent metallic element
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
protein substances that speed up chemical reactions.
located near the base of the neck
the organic phenomenon of rotting
a fluid necessary for the life of most animals and plants
the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
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