The Battle of Hastings
Terms in this set (42)
William's claim to the throne?
He was Edward's cousin
The lack of Godwin influence in 1052 suggests Edward made the choice freely
Harold swore an oath in 1064 supporting William's claim
Harold Godwin's claim to the throne?
He was English and was related to Edith
He acted as sub-regulus and was loyal, putting realm before own brother
Nobles backed his claim to the throne
Edgar Aetheling's claim to the throne?
Closest relative to Edward
Young but impressionable, could be moulded into a perfect king
The Bishop of Worchester ((1057) wanted him as king
His age ensured a long reign
Harald Hardrada's claim to the throne?
Large military presence
Based his claim to the throne on Hardecnut's betrayl of Magnus
had the support of the North of England and Tostig
When is Edward the Confessor buried and what happens on the day?
6th January 1066 and Harold Godwin is crowned king
What occurs in May 1066?
Tostig occupies Sandwich
When and where does William move his fleet to?
In September to the mouth of the River Somme
What did Harold do last minute?
He disbanded his army to go and tend the harvest on the 8th September
When was the Battle of Gate Fulford?
What occurred on the 25th September?
The Battle of Stamford Bridge
When does William land at Pevensy?
On the 28th September
What mistake does Harold make after the Battle of Stamford Bridge?
He marches his army 400 miles south to London and arrives on the 6th October
He refuses to allow them to rest, so when they reach Hastings on the 11th October they're worn out
Date for the Battle of Hastings?
14th October 1066
The Witan acclaim Edgar the Aetheling as king
When does William become king?
25th December 1066
Describe the set-up of the Anglo-Saxon army?
One shield wall consisting of ordinary men
Housecarls at the back
Harold leading from the back
Describe the set-up of the Norman army?
Archers in the front in a line
Three flanks of soldiers with Bretons on the left
Three flanks of cavalry at the back
William leading from the front
...because God wanted him to."
"Harold was a usurper...
...who got what he deserved."
The Normans "were better prepared" and had...
..."superior military techniques and superior generalship."
The Norman troops were...
..."fresh and highly motivated"
"The length of the battle suggests...
...that the two armies were well-matched."
"William was a...
...more experienced battlefield commander than his opponent."
"William was an inspirational leader, capable of...
...rallying his troops and a tactical genius who saw potential for victory."
"William was fortunate too...
...the wind changed in his favour and avoided injury."
"Such events proved...
...that William had God on his side."
How many ships did William have in his fleet?
What did William have built ready for his arrival?
What was a logistical difference between William and Harold?
William ensured the harvest was sorted beforehand
Why was the Norman army so strong?
Norman society was focused on fighting, so they were naturally more skilled and used to battle, more internal cohesion too
How did William get support once in England?
He ravaged the countryside of Wessex, Godwin's patch, to rally more troops
Where had William gained his military experience?
In Maine, and had lead knights before into battle
Psychologically, the Norman army were stronger, why?
The granting of Papal support gave them a sense of mental impetus and increased their zeal
God was on their side, important to a very religious society
Increased recruitment and solidified William's claim
Why did Harold struggle logistically?
There was a lack of provisions and food so he couldn't make progress or concentrate his forces
The Housecarls, the only genuine soldiers, weren't available in a large quantity or instantly as they lived on their own estates
He simply used infantry and didn't invest in archers
His army only served for 2 months and were a mixture of freemen
What happened at Gate Fulford?
Hardrada sailed up the Humber with 300 ships and landed 10 miles from Ouse
The Norwegians lost many men, but still defeated the English
Edwin and Morcar failed to top up Harold's force
York wasn't loyal to the king, so joined Hardrada
The journey North to Stamford Bridge was 190 miles in 4 days
Harold entered York on the 25th September
He caught the Norwegians unaware and killed Tostig and Hardrada
What 5 major mistakes did Harold make?
He left the South exposed and undefended
He failed to allow his troops rest
He couldn't be patient enough to wait for more troops to join him before confronting William
He was carried away by his success
Allowed his personal feelings to influence his decision (Wessex)
How long was the Battle of Hastings?
A whole day
Where were the two armies positioned?
Harold was at the top of Telham Hill, blocking the road to London
William was at the bottom of the hill
Harold could have won, why? What changed?
His shield wall proved effective in deflecting arrows and the Norman infantry
Had he remained put, the Normans wouldn't have won
The Saxons also carried a two handed battle axe which could half a man, these spooked the Norman horses
What did the Breton flank do?
They retreated against William's orders but the Saxons ran after them, they weren't disciplined
The Normans took advantage and did this two more times, trapping troops in the marshes and killing them
The death of Harold and his brothers...
...the Saxon forces rallying again, therefore lost the battle and were killed
William had 5000 troops and...
...England had 2 million people - MAJOR CHALLENGE