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14 elements with atomic numbers from 90 to 103


the 14 element with atomic numbers from 58 to 71

periodic law

physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

alkali metals

group 1 elements

alkaline-earth metals

group 2 elements


group 17 of the periodic table

main-group/representative elements

the p-block elements together with the s-block elements.

atomic radii

one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together


an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge


any process that results in the formation of an ion

ionization energy

the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element

electron affinity

the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom


a positive ion


a negative ion

valence electrons

electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds


the measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons

periodic table

an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with smiliar properties fall in the same column, or group.

transistion elements

d block elements with typical metal properties

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