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classical conditioning
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Terms in this set (64)
classical conditioning
learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to a stimulus other than the original natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex.

- A type of learning first described by Ivan Pavlov

- The classical conditioning process begins when a stimulus elicits a response. This is known as an unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS).

- A US is something that elicits a natural, reflexive response. This response is called the unconditioned response (UR or UCR).

- Through repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus (CS), animals will come to associate the two stimuli together

- When the CS elicits a response without the US, a conditioned respnse (CR) occurs.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response.
- An element of classical conditioning

- The classical conditioning process begins when a stimulus elicits a response, which is nown as an unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS).

- Something that elicits a natural, reflexive, response. In the classic Pavlovian paradigm, it is food.

- Food elicits the natural, involuntary response of salivation, which is called the unconditioned response (UR or UCR)
unconditioned response (UCR)
an involuntary (reflex) response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.

- An element of classical conditioning

- In classical conditioning, a conditioned stimulus ( A neutral stimulus, like a bell) is paired with an uncodnitioned stimulus ( a stimulus that elicts a reflexive response, such as food eliciting salivation).

-This reflexive response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus is the unconditioned response
neutral stimulus (NS)
stimulus that has no effect on the desired response.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus.

- element of classical conditioning

-In classical conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (an originally neutral stimulus, like a bell) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus( a stimulus that elicits a relexive response, such as food eliciting salivation)

- Eventually the conditioned stimulus (e.g., a bell) alone elicits a conditioned response (e.g., salivation). This stage is also called aquisition, since the organism has acquired a new behavior.
conditioned response (CR)
leaned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus.
stimulus generalization
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.

Often animals conditioned to respond to a certain stimulus will also respond to a similar stimuli, although the response is usually smaller in magnitude.

For example, dogs may salivate to a number of bells, not just the one with which they were trained.

This tendency to respond to a similar conditioned stimuli is known as generalization.

Discrimination, responding only to specific conditioned stimuli instead of similar conditioned simuli, is the opposite of generalization.
stimulus discrimination
the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus it never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

Occurs when an organism responds only to specific conditioned stimuli instead of similar conditioned stimuli.

For example, to train dogs to discriminate between different bekks, we would repeatedly pair the original bell with the presentation of food, but we would not intermixed trials where we presented other bells that we did not pair with food.

Generalization, responding only to similar conditioned stimuli instead of only a specific conditioned stimuli, is the opposite of discrimination.
Aversive conditioning
Classically conditioning an organism to have an aversive response to a conditioned stimuli

For example, to stop biting their nails, some people paint them with horrible-tasting materials. Nail biting therefore becomes associated with a terrible taste, and the biting should cease.
extinction
the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).

- Extinction has taken place when conditioned stimulus no longer ekicits the conditioned response. Extinction is achieved by repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus, thus breaking the association between the two.

- If one rings the bell over and over again and never feeds the dogs, the dogs will ultimately learn not to salivate when the bell rings.
reinforcer
any event or object that, when following a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again.
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.

- Sometimes after a classicaly conitioned response has been extinguished and no further training of the animals has taken place, the response briefly reappears upon presentation of the conditioned stimulus
higher-order conditioning
occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.

- once a CS elicits a CR, it is possible, briefly, to use that CS as a US in order to condition a response to a new stimulus

- by using a dog and a bell as our example, after the dog salivates to the bell (first-order conditioning), the bell can be paired repeatedly with a flash of light, and the dog will salivate to the light alone (second-order conditioning), even though the light has never been paired with food.
conditioned emotional response (CER)
emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.
vicarious conditioning
classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.