GOVT 480 Midterm Review Liberty University
Terms in this set (72)
Definitions of Terrorism
- No exact definition
- Violent activity at one point in time may be called terrorism, while the same action may be deemed war, liberation, or crime in another period of history.
- someone is terrorized, and meaning is derived from the targets and victims
- Intolerance - They consider their cause to be absolutely good and just, any who oppose are evil.
- Moral absolutes - They adopt moral absolutes distinguishing good and evil, and their cause is the morally correct vision of the world.
- Broad conclusions - Extremist conclusions are made to simplify the goals of the cause and the nature of the opponents. These are not debatable and permit no exceptions.
- New Language and Conspiratorial Beliefs-Language and conspiracies are created to demonize the enemy and set the terrorists apart from those not part of their belief system.
International and domestic
Terrorism and Criminal Conduct
All terrorists are criminals, but not all criminals are terrorists
Changes in definition due to social and historical circumstances
- Modern terrorism originated from the French Revolution with the term describing the actions of the government against the citizenry of France—State Terrorism.
- In 1848 (Ireland) it described violent reactionaries who revolted against governments.
- By the 1900s it described the violent activities of a number of groups, including labor, anarchists, nationalists, and ultra-nationalists (includes communists and socialists).
- 1917 Revolution in Russia - Lennon/Trotsky
- After WWII, it referred to all nationalistic groups—a product of the Cold War mentality.
- Today it also refers to large groups who are independent from a state, violent religious fanatics, and violent groups who terrorize for a particular cause.
Specific forms of terrorism
Technological, cyber terror, narco terror, eco terror, nuclear terror, argo (including bio) terror
Range of definitions
- Illegitimate use of force to achieve political objectives by targeting innocents
- Two characteristics: 1) Someone is terrorized, and the meaning of the term is derived from the targets and 2) victims of the terrorists.
How terrorism should be viewed
- Terrorism should be viewed as a method or tactic of combat (criminal activity) in which the victims serve as symbolic targets. Violent actors are able to produce a chronic state of fear by using violence outside the realm of normative behavior.
- Governments must look at the intent and motivation of terrorists, and they need to consider whether the event can be repeated.
Typologies of Terrorism
- Terrorist organizations are never truly "at peace"; they are always "at war.'
- Spectrum of Conflict: a continuum that ranges from low-intensity conflict to full-scale war. Terrorism is a form of violent civil disobedience on a spectrum of conflict.
- Tactical Typology. In terrorism, the level of activity is generally correlated with the size of the group—the larger the group, the greater its potential for terrorist violence.
Defining war on terrorism
- While it is not possible in the Constitution to declare war on a concept, federal and local bureaucracies have embraced the metaphor of war.
Arguments accepting the war on terrorism
- three great struggles against totalitarianism: WWII, the Cold War, and militant groups who hate America.
- can be countered by providing military assistance to legitimate governments and pressuring repressive governments to reform.
- U.S. must project military power in the face of such groups
- necessary to identify militant groups and select the proper tactics to destroy them.
- federal government's weapons are the Homeland Security Act of 2002 and the USA Patriot Act of 2001.
Arguments not accepting war on terrorism
- emergency best handled by intelligence and law enforcement services.
- military forces may be used as reinforcements for law enforcement or a special operations units for intelligence organizations.
- Creation of Department of Homeland Security focuses on counter terrorism operations
- U.N. member states still have no agreed-upon definition
- All criminal acts directed against a State and intended or calculated to create a state of terror in the minds of particular persons or a group of persons or the general public.
- U.S. Legal code: premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents.
- DoD: the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.
- FBI: The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives
social process, religious process, psychological process, political process
- Meaning Framework- behavior based on the perceived meaning of actions
- Structural Framework - behavior based on how the organization functions
Subnational criminal, terrorist, or revolutionary groups organize themselves in a network of smaller logistical structures, groups, or command posts
- Non-killing religions embraced enemies and developed elaborate theologies to justify violence as a last resort.
- Non-killing transcendence is often transformed into a militant ideology designed to protect a state or some other social group by this rationalizing of the use of violence as a last resort.
- Individuals take actions within associations, applying an individualized interpretation of reality and reacting to environmental stimuli and motivators.
Alienation - Sageman's model - socialization or decision-making:
1) Alienated young man
2) Meets other alienated young men and form bond
3) Group gravitates toward religion
4) Religion interpreted in militant terms
-- Most groups stop at this point. --
5) Militant group meets terrorist contact
6) Militants join terrorists and group decision
Other ways: ethnic, nationalistic, political, religious
Psychological and sociological factors create the framework for interpreting reality
Terrorism is insanity, lunatic, irrational behavior
- Fairly broad
1. Choice among violent and less violent alternatives. Rational selection of one methodology.
2. Technique for maintaining group cohesion and focus. Group solidarity overcomes individualism.
3. Necessary process to build esteem of oppressed people. Power is established over others, weak become strong. Attention itself becomes self-gratifying.
4. Consider themselves to be the vanguard.
5. Provides a means to justify political violence. The targets are depersonalized, and symbolic labels are attached to them.
- Terrorist act is an effort to effect political change
- A rational choice to accept specific tactics and methodologies to defeat adversary
- Instruments of rational strategic choice - terrorism is optimal strategy
- Group perceived to be morally wronged, group considers themselves to be morally superior
- They believe terrorist cause is just, the enemy's cause is unjust
About terrorist financing and organization:
- Terrorism changes constantly, and organizations must be structured to meet those changes - divisions of labor
- Must be financed: self funding, state sponsor, variety of legitimate and illegal methods of funding
Challenges for terrorist organizational structure
- Structure - cells, nodes, pyramid, umbrella
- Networks - assembly of participants from diverse locations
- Decentralized training
- Internal discipline
- Immediate tactical support
- Small group vs large group dynamics
- Operation is not that costly, overall budget for a campaign can be high.
- Waging of financial warfare against
Structure of funding
- Unlawful raising of funds, formal economy, economic targeting
- Criminal methods
- Robbery, fraud, etc
- ID theft
Underground networks and methods
- moving goods, people, weapons, money, contraband or human (slaves) through underground networks;
- linking to organized crime throughout the world, and in some cases being almost impossible to distinguish between terrorist and criminal activity and;
- the globalization of crime and terrorism creating opportunities for vast profits in the diamond trade.
What is Hawala?
- Parallel remittance system
- Operates outside of traditional banking channels
- Extensive use of connections such as family or regional affiliations.
- "Money transfer without money movement."
- Based on trust
- No paper trail
How Hawala works
"A" wants money transferred. B has connections where A wants the money. A pays B, B tells his connection to give money to whom A wanted. B charges interest and makes a profit, and A gets to transfer the money with no paper trail.
Charities are difficult to investigate
- Can be formed overseas and established in states with weak financial institutions.
- May be state supported.
- May hide the true purpose of their operations, such as the Rashid Trust.
- May be covered or supported by a legitimate business that is not aware of the actual purpose of the charity.
- If established by a terrorist group, a charitable front is difficult to infiltrate.
Refers to terrorist using either terrorist tactics to support drug operations or drug trade profits to finance terrorism. Narcotics are a primary source of money for terrorist groups.
Three models of terrorism
rural model from anticolonial guerrilla war, urban model, the insurgent model
Terrorism is developing into leaderless networks; failed states provide terrorist opportunity for hub or umbrella organizations
Media and meanings:
Meanings are socially created, media can be the social construction aide
Terrorist use of media
- Terrorist aware of media power for their message
- Increasing use of the internet
- Symbolic communication
3 Primary manners:
1) Reporting of events
- Exposure magnifies events, campaigns and causes
- Both terrorists and govts attempt to manipulate reports in their favor
- Especially true in TV
2) Media plays major role in creating the social definition of terrorism
- Globalize local event
- Personalize a global event
3) Internet has become conduit for propaganda and communication
Media concept of their responsibility
No such thing as neutral reporting with terrorism
Relationship between security forces and media
Police and security forces frequently find themselves at odds with this media power
- Compete for favorable media coverage
- Strong disdain for press
Media as a weapon
- One of the tools in al Qaeda's arsenal
- Different audiences
- Media relations group
- Jihadists are keenly aware of media's ability to influence the social construction of reality
- Three strategies: legitimacy, spread their message, intimidation
Types of News Frames
Dominant - presents a story from a single point of view
Conflict - presents the story from two views, each side represented
Contention - summarizes a variety of views
Investigative - exposing corrupt or illegal behavior
Campaigning - the broadcaster's opinion
Reportage - in-depth coverage with background
Difficulty with ambiguity
Ambiguity destroys the ability to create a sustainable news frame
Consumers who do not want to understand other perspectives or who choose not to be informed might be more responsible for misunderstanding terrorism than the commercial news organizations framing the story
- Based on the 24 hour news networks
- Telesector not geared for depth, designed to create revenue
- News becomes banter
- Issues are rarely discussed
- Coverage of shows is driven by a pleasing personality who either lacks intellectual depth or does an excellent job hiding it.
- Has a negative effect on homeland security
- Terrorism is made more horrific to create better drama
- Close relationship between terror and television
- Terrorist acts were "made for TV" dramas
Western attempts at media control in ME
Have failed miserably
- Some believe the violence in media promotes more violence and a growth of insensitivity towards victims. Therefore, the media should be somewhat censored, even if it is only internally regulated (which it is).
- Assertions not proven
Use of Women in Terrorist Attacks
- Threat is not new
- Use of women in terrorist attacks does not constitute a tactical change (same basic tactics).
- Role has been expanding, even in male dominated movements
- Feminist criminologists have been aware of the problem for decades
Tactics using force multipliers
6 of them:
Bomb, Hijack, arson, assault, kidnapping, hostage taking
Technology, Media, Religious fundamentalism, transnational support
- Use of computers to "attack" technical targets
- The use of information technology by terrorists to promote a political agenda
- Citizens, private sector, and legally largely unprepared for cyber attack
NBC (Nuclear, Biological, Chemical)
- Desired by Terrorist groups, however:
- Difficulty: difficulty to obtain and to detonate
- HEU attack (uranium) - lower casualty count than conventional attack, but nuclear attack would cause mass hysteria and chaos
- US not ready to deal with Nuclear terrorism
- Four types of Biological
- Natural poisons or toxins that occur without human modification
- Viruses: Smallpox
- Bacteria: Anthrax
- Plagues: Ebola
- Chemicals easier to deliver than radioactive or biologic
- Four types
- Nerve agents: ingestion, respiration, or contact
- Blood agents: Respiratory
- choking agents : Respiratory
- Blistering agents: Contact
- Easier to control and users can avoid the area they attack
- Delivery mechanism
- Heat incinerates chemical agents
- Takes lots to present a threat
- Difficult to use in large outdoor areas
- Three types of sacrifice:
1) suicide in warfare
2) suicide for a principle without killing others
3) suicidal terrorism
- Suicide Terrorism can be considered a strategic tool
- Three factors:
1) resisting the occupation of a foreign power
2) foreign power must be democratic
3) difference in religions
- Terrorists prefer suicide terrorist attacks because they are intimidating
- Good chance of success, even against secure targets
- Religion remains a strong factor, but not the only one
- Nationalistic and Ethnic Separatist Terrorism is usually asymmetrical
- Pits small groups of separatists against larger government forces
- Most common tactics of asymmetric warfare = terrorism
Attempts of Ethnic and Nationalistic Separatist Terrorism
- Separatists have a clear cut, achievable goal
- Try to forge a national identity
Most effective way to end Ethic and Nationalistic Separatist Terrorism
- Political accommodation
- Sinn Fein - Political party of Irish Republicans (not like US Republicans) - affiliated with the Catholics in Northern Ireland
- Unionists - mostly Protestant in formation, lead the South
- British caught in middle
- Want autonomy from Spain
- ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) has waged a campaign of violence since 1959
- Leader of fascists, Francisco Franco forcibly campaigns against the Basques
ETA - Euskadi Ta Askatasuna
- Composed of young frustrated nationalists who wanted regional autonomy
- Promoted Basque separateness and culture
- Preserve their cultural identity
- Re-emergence of the language
- Non violent weapon to separate themselves from Spain
Spanish Death Squads
- Government members became angry at inaction and developed their own actions
- Conducted counter-terrorism outside the law
- Death squads created with names like "Warriors of Christ the King" and "Basque Spanish Battalion"
- Began torture and murder campaign against the ETA
- Evolved into Anti-Terrorist Liberation Groups (GAL)
- Mostly composed of Spanish Police officers
- Activity peaked between 1977 and 1980
- Sometimes mistakenly killed the wrong people
- Terrorism began to decline after 1980, not due to death squads
- Due to attempts of government to end Basque suppression
- Still active attacks however up until 2001
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
- LTTE (Tamil Tigers) fought for an independent homeland
- Used terrorism both as prelude to guerrilla war and as a way to support uniformed guerrillas in the field
- Pioneered secular suicide bombings (Black Tigers)
- Assassination of political figures and murdered moderate Tamils who opposed their cause
- Sri Lankan Army conducted massive strikes in 2008 - LTTE in full retreat
- Victory declared in 2009
- Cyprus was British crown colony after WWI
- ME military HQ was there after WWII
- Georgios Grivas began planning resistance campaigns in 1953
- Created organization to overthrow British rule in 1954 because of increasing British presence on the Island
- Did not seek military victory:
- First - international sympathy
- Second - tie up as many troops as possible
- Strategy worked - used 400 personnel to tie up 40,000 British troops
- France invaded Northern Africa mid nineteenth century, including Algeria
- Formation of political associations to advocate independence started in the 1930's
- Groups increased activity with the fall of the French Government during WWII
- Thought they could negotiate a peaceful separation from France
- French believed that N Algeria was part of France, request for independence was "out of the question"
FLN (Algerian National Liberation Front) was formed - purpose - violent revolution
- Initial attacks aimed to terrify the European population through violence
- Terrorism (the more horrific the better) was to communicate insecurity and fear
- FLN sought international publicity and sympathy
- Increased effort began with "blind terrorism", violence to show the gov't couldn't be trusted
- FLN never really moved beyond the blind terrorism stage
Definition of Middle East
- Middle East is not a geographic region, it is a concept.
- Area dominated by two major concerns: Islam and the history of Arab people
- Defined by social mores:
- Family and tribal loyalty, male dominance, honor, resentment of Western imperialism
- Three issues:
- Birth and spread of Islam, historical confrontations between Christians and Islam, expansion of conflict
- 4 Caliphs
- 85-90% of Muslims
- Believe Mohammed's cousin, Ali ibn Talib, is right way to go
- Ottoman Empire - until 1924, Zionism after 1918
- Dividing of Ottoman land after WWI done with no regard for area's political realities
- Fromkin calls this the "Peace to end all Peace"
Effects of WWI and the land division
- During the war British encourage Arabs to revolt against the Turks (allied with the Germans)
- British promise movement of Caliphate to Mecca and name Arab as Caliph, support the creation of a united, independent Arab state
- Balfour declaration promises creation of state of Israel
- Not aware of British agreement of Arab state
- Arabs expected the caliphate to include Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem
- British also make promises to allies
- Creation of Arab countries dominated by strong traditional family groups
- League of Nations gives British permission for the "Mandate of Palestine", British control
- Jews demand right to homeland, Arabs believe they were given a false promise
- Both sides resent British, but neither side willing to submit to leadership of the other
Sources of Violence in the Middle East
- Three prominent factors:
1) political control of Israel/Palestine, 2) who would rule the Arab world, 3) relationships between Sunni and Shi'ites
- Sources of terrorism are symbiotic, independent but related
- Most Arab terrorist groups are: dissatisfied over existence of Israel, anti imperialist, wish to revive a united Arab Islamic realm
- Familial links are often more important than national identification
Birth of modern Israel
- Zionist movement after WWI
- Creation of new Jewish group "Irgun Zvai Leumi", prototype of anti-colonial urban terrorist group
- Arab revolt 1936 - 1939: mostly against British but brewing hatred against Jews
- 1945 - 1946 displaced Jews flock to Palestine
- Irgun begins a campaign of all-out terrorism, modeled after IRA and selected terrorism
- Two strategic issues: 1) attack urban centers to tie up British and terrorize Arabs, 2) Wage international campaign to win sympathy
- 1947 situation beyond British control, UN suggests separate land areas
Jews elated, Arabs not so much
- May 15, 1948 - Arabs attack new Jewish state - shift to conventional warfare until 1967
Arab/Israeli wars in 48, 67, 73, 79-82
- May 15, 1948 - Arabs attack new Jewish state - shift to conventional warfare until 1967
- 1967 Six Day War - overwhelming Israeli victory, shame to Egypt/Syria
- 1973 Yom Kippur War - Egypt regains honor after initial victory
- Israel invasion of Lebanon, 1979 - 1982 during time that Iran falls to Shi'ites
- Iranians are not Arabs, they are Persians
- Negative reactions to European imperialism
- British influence and control through the Shah (Reza Shah Pahlavi, followed by his son Mohamed Reza Pahlavi after WW 2),
- Displaced, re-established by CIA actions, peoples hatred of imperialism - Shah creates SAVAK
- Western reforms under Shah work with middle class, initial attempts by clergy to intervene were thwarted initially