Only $2.99/month

Terms in this set (525)

All psychology has its roots in 1800 Europe.
I/O Psychology developed in early 1900s.
Hugo Münsterberg brought I/O into the
mainstream with his book Psychology and
Industrial Efficiency (1913).
Pioneer of safety in the workplace, and use of aptitude
and work sample testing for employee selection.
Early I/O was concerned with efficiency in the
workplace.
Key to an efficient workplace is better employee
selection, training, job design, work layout etc.
Walter Dill Scott a pioneer in this.
Emphasis on efficiency overlapped with industrial
engineers like the Galbreths.
Design and problems in the workplace of particular
interest and continues into the 21st century.
Early 1900's saw the US entry in WWI.
I/O psychologists (as the rest of the field) were
pressed into service to classify and assign large
numbers of men into appropriate war work.
Intelligence, psychomotor, and personality test data
collected to aid in development and validation of
selection and placement methods.
Following the Great War, I/O psychologists came
into demand to do for private buisness what they
done for the Army.
Western Electric, P & G, Aetna, Macy's all retained staff
psychologists.
Carnegie Institute of Technology offers a Ph.D. in
I/O psychology.
Psychology Corporation forms to do consulting.
The field had to roll with great challenges in the
working environment of the 1930's.
Establishment of Unions, The Great Depression
1941 the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor.
Huge advancements in technology required even
more screening, classifying and training of military
recruits. Had to be done VERY quickly.
More than 12 million soldiers and marines took the Army
General Classification Test (Richardson).
Stateside, women had to go to work in the
factories in order to keep them running.
Military also needed team development strategies,
performance evaluation procedures, & morale aids.
Much of I/O psychology rooted in the military.
Individual Participative
Instructional Methods.
Allows for both active
participation on the part of the
trainee and for an individual
learning pace.
Four kinds:
1. Programmed Instruction
2. Computer-Assisted Instruction
3. Simulation Training
4. Job Rotation
Programmed Instruction.
First developed in the 1920's to
teach children to spell and do math.
Graduated presentation of material
with feedback as to correct or
incorrect at each step.
Used booklets and a machine.
Trainees can progress at their own
pace, feel good about getting things
right, really cheap.
Rarely seen any more, except in
older corps.
Computer - Assisted Instruction.
An extension of Programmed
Instruction.
Can present standardized
information and allow trainees to
practice without cheating.
Can provide feedback as to how a
trainee is approaching the problem
presented.
Now using interactive media as a
training tool.
Used to train customer service
employees, used in the banking and
hotel industry,
Don't want to practice on angry
customers.
Simulation Training
Mock-up work settings and role plays:
Making it seem real while controlling the
situation.
Mock-up fast food restaurant, burn
buildings.
Often used when the training needs to
seem real, but without disastrous
consequences.
Flight simulators: trains pilots without
their needing to actually crash.
Can simulate rare events: engine
failure
Paramedics often train on manikins rather
than people. Police officers use simulation
buildings.
http://www.f
bi.gov/page2
/jan05/hogan
013105.htm
Hogan's Alley
Job Rotation.
Employees are
trained in a variety
of jobs so that they
can be flexible about
what the do.
Reduces monotony,
burnout, lets people
trade off doing the
less desirable jobs.
Usually, this is OJT.
Group Participative Instructional
Models
Trainees interact with and learn from
one another as well as from the
instructor and materials.
Often enhancing learning
considerably, but takes a stronger
instructor to manage group dynamics
and keep people on task.
1. Discussion techniques: give a case
study/task.
2. Role playing and Behavior
Modeling.
3. Videoconference Training.
On-the-job training
• Major advantage is economy; also transfer of training
• May be expensive if it takes other workers away from
their jobs to conduct the training
• Has potential of disrupting production
• Vestibule training
• Simulated workspace in a separate training facility
• High fidelity with actual job helps in training transfer
• Relies on skilled instructors
• Greatest disadvantage is cost
Apprenticeship
• Training method for skilled crafts and trades
• Involves classroom instruction and on-the-job experience
• Average 4-6 years
• Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
• Trainees learn material at their own pace and receive
immediate feedback on their progress
• Trainees interact with computer terminals
• Widely used for teaching computer literacy
• Decreases training time required and improves transfer
• Net-based training
• Type of distance learning
• Involves both Internet and Intranet
• Offers same advantages as CAI with even more flexibility
• 20%-35% less than the cost of traditional classroom instruction
• Behavior modification
• Use of positive reinforcement to change behavior
• Steps
• Conduct performance audit
• Select behavior to be changed
• Introduce program of positive reinforcement
• Example: Emery Air Freight (pp. 143-144)
• Job rotation
• Technique that assigns trainees to various jobs and departments over
a period of a few years
• Often used for new college graduates and for training for skilled and
semi-skilled jobs
• Disadvantages include disruption caused by frequent moves and not
enough time to acquire necessary skills
• Case studies
• A method of executive training in which trainees analyze a business
problem and offer solutions
• A limitation is that solutions may not be relevant to the job at hand
(lack of positive transfer)
• Business games
• Used to develop problem-solving and decision-making
skills
• Trainees often compete in teams
• Teams deal with corporate problems, and instructors
evaluate their effectiveness
• In-basket training
• Trainee is given a stack of issues to deal with, typical of
job requirements, in set amount of time
• Trainer discusses solutions and provides feedback
• Role playing
• Trainees pretend to perform a role, displaying the behaviors they
believe are appropriate to the situation
• Provides opportunity to practice job-related behaviors
• Behavior Modeling
• Trainees attempt to imitate the job behaviors of successful
supervisors
• Trainer provides introduction
• Trainees watch a video of supervisor using appropriate procedures
• Trainees engage in behavior rehearsal
• Trainer and other trainees provide feedback
• Transfers directly to job
• Effective in raising employee morale, improving communication with
customers and reducing employee resistance to change
• Executive coaching
• One-to-one training sessions between a coach and manager to
improve manager's performance
• Designed to fit individual needs as they arise
• Often used to follow up poor ratings on 360 degree feedback appraisals
• Diversity training
• Teach people to confront personal prejudices that could lead to
discriminatory behavior
• $10 billion spent annually
• Requires management support to succeed
• Kalev, Dobbin, & Kelly (2006) found that voluntary participation led to
more positive results
• McKay, Avery, & Morris (2008) found significantly lower differences
between Black and White sales people in pro-diversity climate
^ Achievement Motivation Theory
- the theory of motivation that emphasizes the need to accomplish something, to do a good job, and to be the best.
- since the early 1950's, achievement motivation has been studied by David McClelland and his colleagues.
- McClelland concluded that the economic growth of orginizations and societies can be related to the level of the achievement need among employees and citizens
- McClelland identified three major characteristics of people who have a high need to achieve:
1. They favor a work environment in which they are able to assume responsibility for solving problems.
2. they tend to take calculated risks and to set moderate, attainable goals.
3. they need continuing recognition and feedback about their progress so that they know how well they are doing.
- there is a high positive correlation between the achievement motivation scores of executives and the financial success of their companies.
- these managers show more respect, are more receptive to new ideas, and more accepting of participative management programs.
- a study in Israel and England showed the higher the measured achievement motivation, the higher was the employee's job performance.
- two types of goals that can satisfy the need for achievement:
1. Mastery
- refers to developing competence and self - satisfaction through acquiring knowledge and skills.
2. Performance
- involve developing competence by performing better than other people in the same situation.
- a study of college students in the Netherlands found that the college students were more highly motivated to achieve for self satisfaction rather than showing they could perform better than other students.
- a study at electric companies in the Netherlands found that employees with a strong performance orientation established lower quality leader-member exchanges (LMX's) and correspondingly were lower in job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.
^ Needs Hierarchy Theory
-the theory of motivation by Abraham Maslow that encompasses physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
-suggests people always want what they do not yet have therefore, the needs that are currently satisfied no longer provide motivation.
-physiological needs - the basic human needs, including food, water, sleep, air, and the drives for sex and activity.
-safety needs -the needs for physical shelter and for psychological security and stability.
-belonging and love needs -the social needs for love, affection, friendship, and affiliation that involve interaction with and acceptance by other people.
-esteem needs -the needs for self esteem, admiration, and respect from other people.
- self actualization needs - the need for self - fulfillment, for achieving our full potential and realizing our capabilities.
-Maslow's theory has received little research and is judged to have low validity and applicability.
^ Motivator - Hygiene (two -factor) Theory
-the theory of motivation that explains work motivation and job satisfaction in terms of job tasks and work place features.
- the motivator needs - (the higher needs) motivate employees to high job performance, they are internal to the work itself, they include the nature of the individual job tasks and the workers level of responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement and career development and growth.
-motivator needs are similar to Maslow's self - actualization needs.
-job dissatisfaction is produced by the hygiene needs.
-the hygiene needs- (the lower needs) are external to the tasks of the work environment, such as company policy, supervision, intrapersonal relations, working conditions, and salary and benefits.
- when hygiene needs are met it is not job satisfaction but merely an absence of job dissatisfaction.
-Hygiene needs are similar to Maslows physiological, safety and belonging needs.
-job enrichment - an effort to expand the scope of a job to give employees a greater role in planning, performing, and evaluating their work.
-Herzberg suggested four ways to enrich a job:
1. remove some management controls over employees and increase their accountability and responsibility for their work, thus increasing employee autonomy, authority, and freedom.
2. create complete or natural work units where possible; for example, allow employees to produce a whole unit instead of one component of that unit. This policy increases the likelihood that employees will regard their work as meaningful within the total organizational process.
3. provide regular and continuous on productivity and job performance directly to employees instead of through their supervisors.
4. encourage employees to take on new, challenging tasks and to become experts in a particular task or operation.
^ Job - Characteristics Theory
- The theory of motivation that states that specific job characteristics lead to psychological conditions that can increase motivation, performance, and satisfaction in employees who have a high growth need.
- Developed by J. Richard Hackman and G. R. Oldham.
- People with a high growth need were found to be more affected by changes in job characteristics than were people with a low growth need.
- Changes in job characteristics did not seem to influence employee attitudes or behaviors directly but were filtered by the employees' cognitive processes, that is, their perception changes.
- The core job - characteristics found by hackman and Oldham are:
o Skill variety - the extent to which workers use various skills and abilities on the job, the more meaningful it will be.
o Task identity - the unity of a job - that is, whether it involves doing a whole unit of work or completing a product instead of making only part of a product on an assembly line.
o Task significance - the importance of a job to the lives and well- being of co - workers or consumers. For example, the job of aircraft mechanic affects the lives of more people in a more significant way than does the job of postal clerk.
o Autonomy - the amount of independence employees have in scheduling and organizing their work.
o Feedback - the amount of information the employees receive about the effectiveness and quality of their job performance.
- Suggestions to redesign jobs are close to one proposed by Herzberg:
o Combine small, specialized tasks to form larger work units; this enhances skill variety and task identity.
o Arrange tasks in natural, meaningful work units to make the worker responsible for an identifiable unit; this enhances task identity and task significance.
o Give workers responsibility for direct contact withclients or end users; this enhances skill variety autonomy and feedback.
o Give workers authority, responsibility, and control over the job tasks; this increases skill variety, task identity, task significance and autonomy.
o Arrange for workers to learn regularly how well they are performing the job; this increases feedback.
- Hackman and Oldham developed the job diagnostic survey (JDS), this measures :
o Employees perception of the job characteristics
o Employees level of the growth need
o Employees job satisfaction
- JDS is a self- report inventory consisting of short descriptive phrases about the various job characteristics.
- Respondents rate how accurately each statement describes their job.
- A revised version using positive worded items only has been found to be more valid than the original.
^ Valence - Instrumentality- Expectancy Theory (VIE)
-the theory of motivation that states that people make choices based on their perceived expectations that certain rewards will follow if they behave in a particular way.
-originated by Victor Vroom
- in the workplace, employees will choose to perform at the level that results in the greatest payoff or benefit.
- the psychological value, or valence , of the reward varies with the individual.
- the three facets of the VIE theory are :
1. employees must decide whether they expect certain job behaviors - such as coming to work on time, following safety procedures or improving productivity to have a high probability of leading to a particular outcome (expectancy).
2. employees must determine whether that outcome will lead to other outcomes - for example, whether a good attendance record leads to a bonus (instrumentality).
3. employees must decide whether those outcomes have sufficient value to motivate them to behave a certain way (valience).
^ Equity theory
-the theory of motivation that states that peoples motivations on the job is influenced by their perception of hoe fairly they are treated.
- created by J. Stacy Adams
-the level of reward received by each type affects motivation, job satisfaction, and job performance.
-revised three types of behavioral response patterns to situations of perceived equity or inequity:
1. benevolent people - described as altruistic, are satisfied when they are under rewarded compared with co - workers, and feel guilty when they are equitably rewarded or over rewarded.
2. equity - sensitive persons - believe that everyone should be rewarded fairly. They feel distressed when under rewarded and guilty when over rewarded.
3. entitled persons - believe that everything they receive is their due. They are satisfied only when they are over rewarded or equitably rewarded.
- studies show that employees perceptions of inequity are linked to increased levels of resentment, absenteeism, turnover and burnout.

^ Goal - Setting theory
- The theory of motivation based on the idea that a person's primary motivation on the job is defined in terms of the desire to achieve a particular goal.
- Developed by Edwin Locke
- The goal represents what we intend to do in the future.
- Specific goals are more powerful motivating goals than general ones.
- Goals that are harder to obtain are greater motivators than goals that are easy to obtain
- Difficult goals may spur greater motivation toward attaining goals at the expense of other behaviors, such as helping co - workers, and this type of behavior has the potential for reducing overall organizational effectiveness.
- Goals that are too difficult, perhaps beyond a person's capabilities, are worse than having no goals in terms of their impact on motivation and job performance.
- Three types of factors influence goal commitment:
o External - authority,peer influence, and external rewards.
Complying with the dictates of an authority figure such as a boss has been shown to be an inducement to high goal commitment.
Goal commitment increases when the authority figure is physically present, supportive, and trusted.
Peer group pressure and external rewards such as pay increases also help strengthen goal commitment.
o Interactive - competition and opportunity to participate in setting goals.
Commitment to the goal is reduced when the expectation of achieving it declines.
o Internal - the need for achievement, endurance, aggressiveness, and competitiveness (type A behavior), success in achieving difficult goals, high self - esteem and an internal locus of control.
- People who score high in conscientiousness and low in neuroticism display high levels of motivation induced by goal setting.
- Motivating effects of setting goals are strongest for easy tasks and weakest for more complex tasks.
- One of the most practical theories of employee motivation.
- Motivator - Hygiene (two -factor) Theory
-the theory of motivation that explains work motivation and job satisfaction in terms of job tasks and work place features.
- the motivator needs - (the higher needs) motivate employees to high job performance, they are internal to the work itself, they include the nature of the individual job tasks and the workers level of responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement and career development and growth.
-motivator needs are similar to Maslow's self - actualization needs.
-job dissatisfaction is produced by the hygiene needs.
-the hygiene needs- (the lower needs) are external to the tasks of the work environment, such as company policy, supervision, intrapersonal relations, working conditions, and salary and benefits.
- when hygiene needs are met it is not job satisfaction but merely an absence of job dissatisfaction.
-Hygiene needs are similar to Maslows physiological, safety and belonging needs.
-job enrichment - an effort to expand the scope of a job to give employees a greater role in planning, performing, and evaluating their work.
-Herzberg suggested four ways to enrich a job:
1. remove some management controls over employees and increase their accountability and responsibility for their work, thus increasing employee autonomy, authority, and freedom.
2. create complete or natural work units where possible; for example, allow employees to produce a whole unit instead of one component of that unit. This policy increases the likelihood that employees will regard their work as meaningful within the total organizational process.
3. provide regular and continuous on productivity and job performance directly to employees instead of through their supervisors.
4. encourage employees to take on new, challenging tasks and to become experts in a particular task or operation.
- Achievement Motivation Theory
- the theory of motivation that emphasizes the need to accomplish something, to do a good job, and to be the best.
- since the early 1950's, achievement motivation has been studied by David McClelland and his colleagues.
- McClelland concluded that the economic growth of orginizations and societies can be related to the level of the achievement need among employees and citizens
- McClelland identified three major characteristics of people who have a high need to achieve:
1. They favor a work environment in which they are able to assume responsibility for solving problems.
2. they tend to take calculated risks and to set moderate, attainable goals.
3. they need continuing recognition and feedback about their progress so that they know how well they are doing.
- there is a high positive correlation between the achievement motivation scores of executives and the financial success of their companies.
- these managers show more respect, are more receptive to new ideas, and more accepting of participative management programs.
- a study in Israel and England showed the higher the measured achievement motivation, the higher was the employee's job performance.
- two types of goals that can satisfy the need for achievement:
1. Mastery
- refers to developing competence and self - satisfaction through acquiring knowledge and skills.
2. Performance
- involve developing competence by performing better than other people in the same situation.
- a study of college students in the Netherlands found that the college students were more highly motivated to achieve for self satisfaction rather than showing they could perform better than other students.
- a study at electric companies in the Netherlands found that employees with a strong performance orientation established lower quality leader-member exchanges (LMX's) and correspondingly were lower in job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.
- on any given day in the US up to 20% of employees do not show up for work.
- absenteeism costs businesses more than $30 billion a year.
-has plagued industries since the invention of machines.
-throughout the 19th century in England workers typically took off Mondays - "Saint Mondays" they called it - to recover from weekend drinking bouts.
-much of industry data comes from self - reports.
-underreporting of absences by as much as 4 days a year
-About 90% of employees claim to have above - average attendance records.
-the more liberal an organizations sick leave policy, the higher its absenteeism rate.
- higher in organizations who do not require proof of illness.
-high -paying manufacturing industries have higher absenteeism than lower - paying industries.
-the more mone employees earn the more entitled they feel to take time off.
- workers in routine jobs often have a higher absence rate than workers in more interesting, challenging jobs.
- Japan and Switzerland absenteeism is low.
- in Italy they higher 15% more workers needed to make sure that enough people report to work each day to maintain operations.
- high positive affectivity has a significantly lower rate of absenteeism than those with low positive affectivity.
- work related psychological distress and depression correlated significantly with absenteeism rates.
-higher among black employees than white employees when black employees believed their organization placed little value on workplace diversity.
- obese woman are more likely to miss work than non - obese women. Obese men in sales and professional jobs missed more workdays than obese men in office workers and management positions.
- can be reduced through a program of rewards and recognition for good attendance records.
-high employee turnover resulted in lower sales and profits.
-evidence relating high turnover with job dissatisfaction is high.
- both intended and actual turnover can be attributed to job dissatisfaction with various aspects of the job such as low pay or poor leadership.
- organizational commitment is strongly related to turnover.
-turnover is higher in times of low unemployment and expanding job opportunities than it is in time of high unemployment and limited opportunities.
- when people perceive that the economic climate is good and the economy is growing, they find it easier to consider changing jobs in hopes of increasing job satisfaction.
-people who score low on the big five factor of emotional stability expressed a much greater intention to quit their job than did those who scored high on this factor.
- jobs that require a high level of creativity tend to be high in challenge, complexity, and autonomy and low on organizational control and supervision.
-people in highly creative and challenging jobs reported higher job satisfaction and lower turnover intentions than people whose jobs did not offer these characteristics.
-women quit more often than men
- minority women quit more often than minority men
-black, Hispanic, and Asian workers quit more than white workers.
-turnover is not always harmful to the organization whereas absenteeism is.
-functional turnover - when poor performers quit.
- dysfunctional turnover - when good performers quit.
-involuntary turnover - downsizing or RIF ( reduction in force)
-involuntary turnover has a significant negative effect on the job performance and productivity of the remaining workers.
- the more women in a work group the lower the commitment of men.
- the more men in a work group the higher the commitment of women.
-Three types of organizational commitment:
1. Affective or Attitudinal Commitment - the employee identifies with the organization, internalizes its vales and attitudes and complies with its demands.
- correlates highly with perceived organizational support, .
- high perceived organizational support was strongly related to reduced turnover.
- studies in the US and France demonstrated a high positive correlation between affective commitment and and employees mood and job performance.
2. behavioral commitment - the employee is bound to the organization only by peripheral factors such as pension plans and seniority, which would not continue if the employee quit.
- no personal identification with orginizational goals and values.
-is negatively related to job performance.
3. normative commitment - involves a sense of obligation to remain with the employer, a feeling that develops when employees receive benefits such as reimbursement or specific skills training.
- organizational citizenship behavior( OCB) - means putting forth the extra effort, doing more for an employer than the minimum requirements.
- includes behaviors like :
- taking on additional assignments
-voluntarily assisting other people at work
- keeping up with the developments in one's field or profession
- following company rules when when no one is looking
- promoting and protecting the organization
- keeping a positive attitude
- tolerating inconveniences at work
- good organizational citizens are model employees whose behaviors can help ensure the success of the entire organization.
- high in organizational citizenship offers higher cutomer satisfaction and greater company profits.
-High OCB relates to:
-strength of friendships with co - workers
-a strong sense of empathy
-high job satisfaction
- affective commitment.
- scoring high on factors of conscientiousness, extraversion, optimism, and altruism.
• At every level, women are generally paid less for same
work
• In a study of recent MBA graduates and current MBA
students, Ellin (2004) found:
• 57% of male MBAs negotiated salary vs. 7% of female MBAs
• Negotiations resulted in average $4,500 increase in pay
• 70% of male MBA students felt they deserved higher pay than other
applicants, whereas 70% of female students felt they should receive
the same pay
• 85% of males felt it was their responsibility to get the organization to
pay them what they were worth vs. only 17% of female MBAs. Most
females felt they were worth what the organization decided to pay
them
• Perceived obstacles to advancement of women
• Persistence of male stereotypes
• Lack of fit with corporate culture
• Deliberate exclusion from informal networks
• Difficulty getting good assignments
• Not considered for positions that require relocation
• Have to work harder and meet higher standards than men
• Women's success is attributed to external conditions;
when men succeed it's attributed to personal ability
• Women are rated more effective in situations requiring
mentoring, rewarding & supporting; men rated more
effective at delegation, inspiration and problem solving
• Women exhibiting stereotypically male behaviors seen as
"too tough" and "unfeminine" rather than competent
• Research suggests that women are perceived as more
"leader-like" than in past, but still possess fewer leader
qualities than men (Duehr & Bono, 2006)
• Men and women receive the same frequency of mentoring
• Job satisfaction (Eddelston, Veiga, & Powell, 2006)
• Women prefer socio-emotional satisfiers (e.g., bringing warmth and
sensitivity to job relationships) vs. men who want status-based
satisfiers (e.g., confirm their authority)