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FDST 150 Test 5
Terms in this set (162)
What is the purpose of food preservation?
to inhibit spoilage (such as microbial, oxidation, insects, etc)
When did food preservation begin?
- its as old as human civilization
- drying food dates back to ancient times
By 1000BC what had the Chinese begun to do?
- use salt and smoke
What were the early methods of preservation?
How did the Egyptians primarily preserve their grains and cereals?
- storage and drying (silos)
Why did the Egyptians preserve and store their grains? Where did this take place? What did this process provide for the community?
- they feared the Nile not flooding regularly and crops not being nourished
- Storage facilities were located throughout communities for distribution
- Storage and drying processes provided distinguished jobs
What was a common staple for the Egyptian diet?
- Beer (evidence of its existence dates back to 4000 BC)
Fermentation was ________ not invented
What was produced for only the elite in the Egyptian society?
How were fish and meats preserved?
drying and some salting
What was the evidence found for the first writing dating back to the 4th century BC in the Mesopotamian region?
- ration lists, food distributions and grainary inventories
- narratives passed on about preservation methods
What started in the Mesopotamian region that spread to Egypt?
viticulture (wine making)
What was the evidence for the first ovens of the Mesopotamian region?
- tannur ovens
- beehive shape, stood upright
- made out of clay and gypsum
- withstand temps up to 850 C
- used to cook grains and breads
What did the Mesopotamian region do to fish?
- dried, smoked, and pressed for oils
What was the early beer and wine like from the Mesopotamia region?
- added important proteins and nutrients to diets
- very low in alcoholic content
What is streptomyces?
- soil bacterium
- produces tetracycline
- ancients used beer to treat the infection
- large doses of tetracycline found in African mummies (shows they were of medicinal value)
What were the early preservation methods for the following:
d. Early North American Indians
a. jars of fruit preserved in honey
b. first preserved ham
c. laid fish in the riggings of their ships to let sea wind dry their fish
d. pemmican - remove fat, cook meat, then grind fat and meat into a paste; prevented deterioration; important for fur traders during the 17th-19th centuries
Who was Nicholas Appert?
- French chef, confectioner, and distiller
- discovered canning
In 1795, the French armies across Europe had restrictive food provision and the traditional food preservation was not adequate. What did Napoleon Bonaparte do as a result?
- offered prize of 12,000 francs for effective preservation method because feeding the army was crucial to conquering neighbors
What did Appert discover about his canning process?
- excluding air was critical
What were Appert's corks like?
- created strong corks to suuport the inside and outside of the bottle
- made glue out of isinglass to join pieces of cork together
- created large, strong corks to withstand heat and pressure
What was quicklime and water mixed together to form?
- smeared on top of corks to prevent air from entering the bottles
What was special about the bottle and rims?
- used glass bottles with wide necks to permit many foods
- bottles had rims so lids could be placed on top
What are the steps to Appert's canning process?
- cook (boil) the food
- place cooked food in jars
- cork jars
- water-bath to boil jars containing food
- remove product after set period of time and let cool
What foods are preserved via Appert's canning method?
- veggis: peas, onions, asparagus, spinach, etc
- milk, eggs, cream
After 7 years of factory work, what did Appert do? Result?
- sent samples of his products for Napoleon's Army
- Napoleon was happy and Appert was personally awarded 12,000 frances
What is canning sometimes referred to as?
What is the highest IFT award?
- Nicholas Appert Award (recipient gets 50000 dollars)
How many streets are named after Appert? How many statues does he have? What postal service was he commemorated on? What happened in 2010?
- 72 in France (1 in Canada)
- French stamp
- declared "Nicholas Appert Year" by French Ministry of culture
Who was Peter Durand?
- British inventor
- patented the "tin can"
- led to modern day process
Who were John Hall and Bryan Dorkin?
- had first commercial canning factory in England
- early 1820s- canning came to US
- original cans = very thick (manufactured at rate of 6/hr)
Who was Henry Evans?
- invented better can making machine
- made 60/hr
Who was John Mason?
- Philly tinsmith
- invented the Mason Jar
- also called Ball Jar
- this led to home canning
Who were Frank and Edmund Ball?
- discovered that Mason's patent had expired
- so Ball Jars are no longer made
Who was the first to freeze food outside of winter in ice cellars?
What did the Greeks and Romans do?
- used compressed snow in underground cellars
What did the Incas do by storing their foods at high altitudes?
- reduced atmospheric pressure
- water dissipated better than at sea level-- foundation for freeze drying
What was the Incas technology used in freeze drying?
- vaporization of water (low pressure)
- traditional freezing -- ice crystals led to water removal
What was freeze drying used for during WWII?
for preserving blood plasma and penicillin
What foods did freeze-drying later apply to?
- freeze-dried coffee
- created by Nestle in response to excess Brazilian coffee
Who was Clarence Birdseye?
- father of frozen foods
- didn't invent frozen food process
- improved and made it successful
- born in Brooklyn and spent his summers on large family farm on Long Island
- love the outdoors
- spent time in fields or at the seashore
What did Clarence Birdseye do as a child with wildlife?
- noticed a large number of muskrats in the area
- at 10 yrs old he trapped them for a customer in England and used the profits to buy a shotgun
- he became an avid outdoorsmen and studied and practiced taxidermy as a youth
What was Clarence Birdseye experience like at Amherst College?
- money was tight
- trapped and sold black rats to a geneticist at Columbia University
- sold live frogs for reptile food to Bronx Zoo
- money then grew tighter so he left Amherst
- later awarded an honorary MA degree
Where did Birdseye take a job at?
- a naturalist with USDA's biological Survey
- looked at birds from NM and AZ & ticks from Rocky Mtns
- soon became interested in fur business
What happened after Birdseye left govt work?
- took 6 week cruie of Labrador water with famous medical missionary Sir Wilfred Grenfell
- here he learned of profits to be made from furs and left the expedition and spent the next 5 yrs travelling by dog sled collecting furs
Who said, "I'll tell you one thing. The front half of a skunk is excellent."
Who ate almost anything?
Who did Birdseye marry? What did he do with his newborn child?
- Eleanor Gannett
- moved his wife and 5 wk child to Labrador in a 3 room cabin that was 250 miles from the nearest doctor
What did Birdseye observe while in Labrador?
- Eskimos freezing duck and caribou
- winter freezing of food vs. spring freezing -- winter had better quality
What did Birdseye do when he moved back to the US?
- started wholesale fish business and started experiments with frozen fish
Who said, "My contribution was to take Eskimo knowledge and the scientists' theories and adapt them to quantity production."
How did Birdseye Seafoods begin?
with $7 and the purchase of electric fan, buckets of brine, and cakes of ice
What were Birdseye's two major contributions?
- importance of rapid freezing of food (significance of small ice crystals)
- retail consumer packaging
Why was Birdseye's business not successful?
- consumers were skeptical of frozen food
- the old method gave poor quality
- sold to hospitals and schools
-food for soldiers
- 1st company ended in bankruptcy
How did Birdseye open up a second business? What were its results?
- with financial partners he organized the General Foods Company (General Seafood Co)
- here he developed a series of quick freezing devices
- included the following:
* Quick Freeze Machine
* packaged fresh food in waxed cardboard boxes
* two metal belts, 15 m freezing tunnel
* salt solution sprayed on belts
* resulted in 1st commercially practical freezer
Who did Birdseye sell his compy to?
- General Foods (Postum Cereal Co)
- changed name from Birdseye to Birds Eye
Where was Birdseye first sold? What did they sell? Where was it sold next?
- Springfield, MA
- 27 items inculding veggies, fruits, fish, and meats
- Rochester, NY
What were the obstacles for frozen foods sales? What helped fixed the problems?
1. retailers: unwilling to spend money for frozen storage
2. consumers: canned foods predominated, instutional sales were the primary market, frozen foods used in foodservice, railroads and steamships became the dumping grounds for frozen foods
- Birdseye began making frozen food display cases
What made nationwide distribution possible?
- Birdseye leased the first insulated railroad cars
What was the unlikely savior of the frozen foods industry?
Japan overran southeast Asia
- the world's tin resources
- US govt put restrictions on canners
- opended door for frozen foods
- grocers filled empty space with frozen food storage
What rocketed frozen food sales? What caused a decrease? What created another increase?
- TV dinners
- diet craze in America
- creative marketing of Lean Cuisine, Weight Watchers, and the new invention of the microwave
How did Birdseye die?
heart attack; his ashes were scattered at sea off the coast of MA
What other inventions did Birdseye create?
- procedure to dehydrate foods
- paper pulp from sugarcan residue
- had over 300 patents
How do the following price/gallons compare:
b. tap water
c. Kroger milk
d. Mayfield milk
e. Dasani bottled water
b. less than 1 cent
Where is most of the cost found in bottled water? What fraction of bottled water sales is from single bottles?
- the bottle and lid
What are America's concerns for tap water?
- concern for quality
- concern for safety
How does bottled water compare to tap water?
- 31% exceeded tap water limits for microbial contamination
- 25% could not document their water sources
What kind of FDA regulation is placed on bottled water?
- if bottled water is sold strictly within state borders - not FDA regulated: 60-70% sold in state produced, outside of FDA oversight; 20% of states do no testing
- bottled water not considered high risk
What is municipal tap water regulated by?
- according to the Safe Drinking Water Act it can NOT contain any E. Coli
What happened in Milwaukee, WI?
- Cryptospordium outbreak
- largest water-borne disease outbreak in US history
- more than 40,000 people got sick and at least 50 died
What happened at the Bull Run reservoir in Portland, OR?
- Cryptosporidium 2x in 3 months
What are the top reasons Americans drink bottled water?
- worried about tap water safety
- worried about tap safety and subs for other beverages
- subs for other beverages
What is natural mineral water?
- found underground
- characterized by a constant level of minerals
What is spring water?
- underground water that flows naturally to the surface
What is purified water?
- from any source
- 40% of bottled water comes from the tap
What are the kinds of purification?
- reverse osmosis
What are examples of the following:
a. brand-name, single product firms
b. multi-product manufacturers
c. private label
d. chain stores
a. Fiji, Evian
b. Coca-Cola (Dasani), Pepsi (Aquafina)
c. DKNY, Donald Trump
d. Kroger, Food City
What's the time line of bottled water?
bottled spa water in France, Perrier, Poland Spring, Diamond Springs, Aquafina, Dasani
Who purchased SmartWater for $ 4.1 billion?
What is Ogo (Oxygenated Water)?
- natural spring water
- Tilburg, Netherlands
- patented, natural oxygenation process
- the "breathing water"
What is Tap'd?
bottled tap water from NYC
Who won in a tast test between Tap'd and Ogo?
What is Bling?
- inspired by Hollywood writer-producer Kevin G Boyd
- syas image is of utmost importance
- believes you can tell a story about a person by the water they carry
- price range: $38.38-$69.69
- origin: TN (Chesnut Hill, Dandridge)
- est in 2005
- English Mtn spring referred to as "The Promised Land"
- bottled at the source, charcoal filtered, treated with UV and ozone
- "Bling H2O is pop-culture in a bottle, But it's not for everyone, just those that Bling."
What is Beverly Hills 9OH2O Diamond Edition?
- only 9 bottles made
- designed by jewler to the stars (Mario Padilla)
- bottle features 14 carats in diamonds: 600+ G/VS white diamonds
- presentation case
- 4 engraved Baccarat crystal tumblers
- includes 1-yr supply of Lifestyle Collection of BH 9OH2O
- most expensive bottled water in the world - sells for $100,000
What are the effects of fracking on tap water safety?
- high pressure injection of water into shale causes released gas to get trapped inside pipes of tap water allowing it to catch on fire if lit
What is Bisphenol A (BPA)?
- used in making polycarbonate plastics
- estrogen-like compound
- org. used as a growth hormone in cattle
- 1930s, used as hormone replacement for women
- has controversial health effects (like leaching into water, role of heat- hot car and dishwasher)
- banned in baby bottles
- host of new products and marketing schemes from being BPA free
How long does plastic take to degrade?
- 1000 yrs
- small % of bottled water is recycled
What are the stats that the US uses to produce plactic water bottles per year?
- uses 17 million barrels of oil
- produces 2.5 million tons of CO2
- takes 3 L of H2O to make 1 L of bottle water
What is the energy savings for using recycled PET materials instead of raw materials?
2/3 energy savings
How much power can recycling a single 20 oz bottle produce?
a 60W bulb for 6 hrs
States with container deposit laws are _____ more likely to recycle
What is special about the Eco-Fina bottle?
- 50% less plastic than 2002 bottle
Deer Park helps the environment by?
- reducing PET by 60% (saving 260 M lbs of plastic)
- made with 50% recycled plastic and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 25%
Who is John Montagu?
- British statesman
- raised by his grandfather, the 3rd Earl of Sandwich and succeeded his grandfather as the 4th Earl of Sandwich
- devoted gambler that would spend 24 hours straight at the gambling table and ordered his cook to bring him meat inside of bread -- the sandwich was invented
- inspired James Cook to name the "Sandwich Islands" for him (today they are Hawaii)
Who was Sylvester Grahm?
- Presbyterian minister, NJ
- Early 19th century health reformer that preached on the evils of: meat, alcohol, fat, and refined flour
- believed that those things stimulated sexual urges
- advocated eating unprocessesd foods, fresh water
- said "Bland food curbs sexual urges"
- outspoken agains "self abuse" (masturbation) and sex - believed men should remain virgins until 30 and after that sex once per month
- to control lust, prescribed special vegetarian diet
- invented grahm crackers
- claimed that his lifestyle would enable 100 yrs of age- last years spent in declining health and died at 57 after recieving several opium enemas at Dr.'s request
What were the grahm crackers of Sylvester Grahm like?
- health food
- whole grain, course, wheat flour
- orginally very bland
What were the original grahm crackers of the 1800s like?
- bland and flavorless
- grahm flour
- later, a bit of honey
What are today's original Grahm Crackers like?
- now made by Nabisco
- sweet and delicious
- unbleached enriched flour
- Grahm flour (whole grain flour)
- soybean oil and/or cottonseed oil
- sulfur dioxide
Where did the name S'mores come from?
the Some More (grahm cracker sandwiches)
- thought to come from Girlscouts because its a recipe in their cookbook
Who was Dr. John Harvey Kellogg?
- physician at Battle Creek Sanitarium
- vegetarian that advocated low-cal diets
- warned that smoking caused lung cancer
- advocate for exercise
- obsessed with bowel elimination - favorite tool was enema machine (15 gal of water follwoed by pint of yogurt (half eaten, half by enema)
- advocate for adequate (excessive?) chewing- coached patients using zwieback, one patient broke her tooth
Who created Corn Flakes and why were they created?
- Dr. Kellog
- for easy chewing
- this est. Sanitas Food Co with son Will Keith
- later started own cereal comapny WK Kellogg Co
Who was Percy Spencer?
- father died when 18 mo old, mother left wim with aunt and uncle
- uncle died when 7- left school to earn money and started working full time at 12
- joined Navy at 18 and became expert in radio technology, taught himself trig, calc, chem, and phys
- joined Raytheon Co and used magnetrons to generate microwaves for radio signals which developed a faster method for magnetron production
- one day standing in front of radar set and his candy bar melted in his pocket
- began experiments with popcorn, eggs
Who filed for patent of the first microwave oven?
- it was 6' tall, 750 lbs, and cost $5000 ($41K in today's money)
- Spencer recieved $2 from Raytheon (which is the same as all other patent inventors
Who was Rex David "Dave" Thomas?
- born to unmarried woman that he never knew
- adopted at 6 weeks old by Rex & Auleva Thomas
- adoptive mother died at age 5
- moved all around country as father searched for work
- 1st job- Regas Restaurant (lost job over dispute with his boss)
- worked at Hobby House Restaurant at 15 and dropped out of HS (considered his life's greates mistake and later earned his GED)
- later life- advocate for education and adoption
What were Dave Thomas's business enterprises?
- bought a portion of KFC franchise- later sold them back to Col Sanders for $1.5 million
- opened first Wendy's and it was named for his daughter "Melinda Lou"-- when she was younger she couldn't pronounce her name and it came out as "Wendy"
How was Wendy's a fast food revolution?
- fresh, not frozen beef patties
- patties were made in square shape not round
- because they didn't "cut corners"
- created today's modern drive thru window
- introduced the sald and baked potato bar to quick serve restaurants
- today- brand transformation-- include fireplaces, variety of inviting seating options, wi-fi, tv's, digital menu, etc
What happened when Dave Thomas retired? What saved Wedny's?
- company struggled
- Clara Peller became Wendy's spokesperson; took advantage of competitiors large buns but small patties; famous for saying "Where's the beef?"
How did Dave Thomas die?
- battled liver cancer for a decade
- died at home in FL
- left behind the Dave Thomas Foundation which is an adoption agency for orphas and has provided support for more than 150,000 children
Who is Paul Newman?
- actor, director, entrepreneur
- created "Newman's Own" brand
- started as his homemade salad dressings to friends
- every cent of profit goes to charities
- more than $450 million has been given to various charities
Who was Truett Cathy?
- opened Dwarf House
- invented the boneless breast of chicken sandwich
- opened 1st chick-fil-a (org only in shopping malls)
- today- 1950 locations in 42 states
- devout Christian - never opened Sunday
- committed to youth - scholarships to employees, 13 foster care homes
What was the renegade cow for Chic-fil-a?
- Eat Mor Chikin
- became extremely popular advertising
Who was George Speck (Crum)?
- African-American/Mohawk Indian
- worked as a hunter, guide, and gook in NYs Adirondack Mts
- hired by Moon's Lake House on Saratoga Lake - became renowned for culinary skills
- during dinner rush, sliced potatoes extra thin, dropped them in oil-- potato chips born
What's one of the stories from potato chip's origin?
- customer complained that his fried potatoes were too thick
- angered, Speck sliced them very then, oven-fried them to a crisp and customer loved them
Who was Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt?
- regular at Moon's Lake House
- could never remember Speck's name
- once called him Crum and Speck took the nickname and decided that "a crumb is bigger than a speck"
Who began marketing potato chips?
What region is the following:
a. US and Ireland
b. elsewhere (ie Scotland)
- still used interchangeably
- US regulations call it whisky
What are the major types of whisky?
- Scotch, Irish, Bourbon, Rye, Canadian, Japanese, Tennessee
Where are the following Tennessee Whiskey's located?
a. Jack Daniel's
b. George Dickel
c. Benjamin Prichard's
d. Colliet & McKeel
Who was Abu Musa Jabir ib Hayyan?
- father of early chemistry
- boiled wine, collected condensate
- al-kohl -> alcohol
What was the early Italian alcohol like?
- alcohol distilled from wine
- spread throughout monasteries
- medicinal use- treatment of colic and small pox
What does aqua vitae mean?
water of life
What was the early medicinal use of distillation of spirit alcohol in Ireland and Scotland?
- likely to feel better or sleep (to forget pain)
What was the 1st evidence of whisky in Ireland?
- Annals of Clonmacnoise (chronical of Irish history)
- documents death of a chieftain from taking a surfeit of aqua vitae at Christmas
What was the 1st real evidence of whisky production in Scotland?
- Exchequer Rolls of Scotland
- describes malt sent to Friar John Cor by order of the King to make 500 bottles of aquavitae
Where was whiskey primarily made? What happened?
- Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries
- whisky making moved into personal homes and farms
- rudimentary distillation
- wasn't aged so it was very raw and harsh
What was the Acts of Union?
- merged England and Scotland
- English malt tax was applied
- led to illegal distilleries and smuggling (early moonshine)
How was aging of whisky discovered?
- merchant discovered an old forgoten cask of whisky
- realized it was much improved instead of "rotten"
What are the 6 main steps of whisky making?
What does preparation consist of?
- germination of barley (2-3 days)
- drying (7-10 days)
What does mashing consist of?
- grains are combined with water
- allows enzymes to convert starch to sugars
What does fermenting consist of?
* saccharomyces cerevisiae
- saccharo -> sugar
- myces -> mold
- cerevisiae -> beer
- literally sugar mold of beer
What does distillation consist of?
- still pots
- patent stills - use steam and are continous
What are the 3 components of distillation (separating alcohol from water)?
- foreshots (head): high alcohol (75-80%), too many voltalities (i.e. methanol), redistilled
- spirit (alcohol)
- feints (tails, aftershots): low in alcohol, redistilled
Double vs. triple distillation?
- improves alcohol content
- removes more impurities
- more than 3x is not of much value
How was proof determined?
- alcohol content was determined using gunpowder
- alcohol that burned steadily with a blue flame was considered 100 degrees proof
- equaled 57.17% ethanol
- Americans rounded it to 50% for simplicity
Where does Devil's cut come from?
- the barrel of Angel Share loses about 2% of the alcohol per year
What is whisky aged in? Does it improve over time in a bottle like some wines do?
What is Scotch?
- made in Scotland
- made only from water, malted barley, and yeast (with other whole grains permitted)
- aged in oak casts for at least 3 yrs
- have a minimum of 40% alcohol
What's a single malt scotch?
- from a single distillery
- made in pot stills
- contains only water and malted barley
What's a single grain scotch?
- from a single distillery
- contains water, barley, and other grains
What's a blended malt scoth?
- a blend of 2 or more single malt scotch whiskies
What's a blended grain scotch?
- a blend of 2 or more single grain scotch whiskies
What's a blended scotch?
- a blend of 1 or more single malt scotch whisky with 1 or more single grain scotch whisky
What is Irish whisky?
- made in Ireland
- made from cereal grains (+ water and yeasts)
- aged at least 3 years in wooden casks
- if comprised of two or more distillates, must be referred to as "blended" Irish whiskey
- typically distilled 3x (Scotch is 2x)
- peat is rarely used
- smoother than Scotch, no earthy, smoky overtones
What are the types of whisky?
- single pot still
- single malt
- single grain
What is a single pot still whisky?
- mix of malted and unmalted barley, completely distilled in a pot still
What is a single malt?
- made entirely from malted barley, single still
What is blended?
- mix of 2 or more distilleries
What is Bourbon Whiskey?
- distinctive to USA
- may be produced elsewhere but most are produced here
- most produced in KY
- made from at least 51% corn - remainder is rye, wheat, and/or malted barley (plus water and yeast)
- aged in charred American oak barrels
- diluted to at least 40% alcohol (most 80 proof)
- barrels are used only once - may still contain 2-3 gallons of bourbon; sold to other distilleries
What are they types of bourbon?
- blended and single barrel
What is blended bourbon?
- several barrels, for color and taste
What is single barrel bourbon?
- all bottles from the same aging barrel
What is the origin of Bourbon?
- whisky sold on bourbon street from the French Bourbon dynasty
- Bourbon County, KY
What is Tennessee Whiskey?
- produced in TN
- legally defined as bourbon
- aged in new oak barrels
- requires maple charcoal filtering
What is Rye Whiskey?
- aged at least 51% rye
- in new, oak barrels
What is Canadian Whisky?
- blend of neutral grain spirits (corn, rye)
- distilled in patent stills and aged for at least 3 years in used casks (Bourbon or Sherry)
- In Canada, the names Rye Whisky and Canadian Whisky are interchangeable
What is Japanese Whisky?
- mimics Scotch Whisky
- made similarly to Scotch whisky but can't be called scotch
What is moonshine?
- white lightning, mountain dew, hooch, etc
- typically high proof
- typically made from corn mash
- made illegally, not taxed
- 18th amendment: prohibited alcohol production in the US, led to illegal smuggling and production, distilled at night to avoid discovery
- prominent in Appalachia (Scot-Irish immigrants brought their recipes with them)
- inexperience producers often used car radiators and radiator coils for distillation (led to contamination with glycol, lead, etc)
- many died - old saying: Red means dead
- modern day legal manufacture
Who was Popcorn Sutton?
- originally from Maggie Valley, NC
- lifelong career in moonshining and bootlegging
- Scots-Irish descendent- considered it part of his heritage
- brashly taunted law enforcement with threats, warning signs, etc
How did Popcorn Sutton die?
- massive ATF raid
- finally arrested, sentenced to 18 months in prison
- committed suicide to avoid incarceration
Who temporarily issued a prohibition order? What amendment came about? What amendment repealed it?
- Woodrow Wilson
What did prohibition lead to?
- widspread illegal production
- moonshine and smuggling
- smugglers modified cars for hauling illegal liquor
- oversized engines, heavy springs, and shocks
- but cars needed to look normal (stock cars are born which led to NASCAR)
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