1,004 terms

AP World History Review 1004

Key terms from Princeton Review: Cracking the AP World History Exam 2013 and AP World History: An Essential Coursebook
STUDY
PLAY
abdicate
give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations
allies
one side in World War I: Great Britain, France, and Russia, later joined by the U.S.
armaments
military weapons and equipment
armistice
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
atomic energy
the energy released by a nuclear reaction
Cold War
a conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
collectivization
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
decolonization
the collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
deposed
removed from office or power
democratization
the process of creating a government elected by the people
ethnic cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
exodus
a large-scale departure or flight
fascism
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
First World
the largely democratic and free-market states of the United States and Western Europe (Cold War to today)
front line
the line along which opposing armies face each other
globalization
the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade
global warming
an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
guerilla
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his/her country
legislature
a group of people who have the power to make laws
militarism
policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
nationalize
put under state control or ownership
national socialist party
(Nazi Party) was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945.
nuclear
(weapons) deriving destructive energy from the release of atomic energy
recession
an economic setback
reparations
payment for damages after a war
sectarian
limited to the beliefs of a small group, such as a religious sect; narrow in scope
terrorism
the use of violence by groups against civilians to achieve a political goal
third world
term applied to a group of "developing" or "underdeveloped" countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War.
totalitarian
characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control
Westernization
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
apartheid
laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Asian Tigers
the highly developed economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Aswan Dam
dam across the Nile River in Egypt. Created Lake Nassar and helps to create more farmland. Built between 1960 and 1970.
Mustafa Kemel
commander of turkish nationalists against Greeks and their British, made President of Modern Turkey in 1923, given title of "Ataturk," meaning "Father of Turks."
Ayatollah Khomeini
Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic.
Balfour Declaration
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Berlin Airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Chiang Kai Shek
general and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
Winston Churchill
Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII
Cuban Missile Crisis
Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.
Cultural Revolution
a radical reform in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 and carried out largely by the Red Guard
Deng Xiapong
Communist party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after Mao Zedong's death.
Eastern Bloc
Soviet allies in eastern Europe, including Bulgaria, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Hungary.
European Economic Community
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
European Union
an association of European nations formed in 1993 for the purpose of achieving political and economic integration.
Fourteen Points
a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.``
Mahatmas Gandhi
born in 1896, set up movement based on nonviolent resistance, led to Indian independence
Marcus Garvey
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa.
Great Leap Forward
economic and social plan used in China from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern industrial society.
Adolf Hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
Holocaust
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
Saddam Hussein
Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran
International Atomic Energy Agency
the United Nations agency concerned with atomic energy
International Monetary Fund
a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
Intifada
an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000
Iran-Iraq War
the war began when Iraq invaded Iran on September 22 1980 following a long history of border disputes and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long suppressed Shia majority influenced by Iran's Islamic revolution.
iron curtain
an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy
Israel
Jewish republic in southwestern Asia at eastern end of Mediterranean
Korean War
the conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Mao Zedong
this man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
North American Free Trade Agreement
created a free-trade area among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
an international economic organization whose member countries all produce and export oil
Shah Reza Pahlavi
became leader of Iran and he helped the country get rich. Many Iranians opposed; protests eventually caused him to flee the country in 1979.
Palestine
region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the Jews; the ancient Roman name for Judea;
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese attack on Chinese capital from 1937-1938 when Japanese aggressors slaughtered 100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in order to gain control of China.
Six Days War
1967 clash between Israel and the Arab world; Israel was victorious
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Third Reich
the Nazi dictatorship under Hitler (1933-1945)
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
trench warfare
war from inside trenches enemies would try killing each other with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas
Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic
lead by stalin, communist in nature, union of "soviets" or states
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
War on Terror
initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined war on terror aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world.
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1955 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Woodrow Wilson
after World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
World Trade Organization
an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
World War I
also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen.
World War II
(1939 - 1945) A war fought in Europe, Africa and Asia between the Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
appeasement policy
allowed Germany to keep Sudetenland in return for Hitler's promise to cease aggressions
Battle of Britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
Battle of the Bulge
World War II battle in December 1944 between Germany and Allied troops that was the last German offensive in the West.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Brest-Litovsk Treaty
a treaty between Russia and Germany stating Russia's withdrawal from the war and letting German gain Poland, Ukraine and other territories to the Germans
Central Powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
collective security
agreement by a group of nations to defend the other in case of an attack on any member
conscription
compulsory military service
D-Day
Allied forces land in Normandy, France to begin massive offensive against Germans in occupied territories of Europe (June 6, 1944)
Eastern Front
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Five Year Plans
plans outlined by Joseph Stalin in 1928 for the development of the Soviet Union's economy
genocide
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
Great Depression
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
Great War
name originally given to the First World War (1914-1918).
Guamindang
nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen
home front
the civilian population (and their activities) of a country at war
island-hopping
stragety of Allies in World War 2 of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others
Alexander Kerensky
an agrarian socialist who became prime minister. He refused to confiscate land holdings and felt that continuation of war was most important.
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
mandate system
a half-way system between outright imperial domination and independence, it was used to split Germany's empire after WW I.
margin
buying a stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest
Mein Kampf
Book written by Hitler while he was exiled, My Struggle.
Munich Conference
1938; Chamberlain, France and other countries (not the USSR); they agreed that Sudentenland should be ceded to Germany; Chamberlain secured peace with Germany.
Benito Mussolini
Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)
New Deal
the economic policy of F. D. Roosevelt
New Economic Policy
Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry`
Pan-Slavism
a movement to create a nation state of Slavic people
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
primary producing economies
economies that mainly export raw materials
protectionism
the policy of imposing duties or quotas on imports in order to protect home industries from overseas competition
Rome-Berlin Axis
the alliance between Italy and Germany (Mussolini and Hitler)
self-determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
socialism in one country
policy adopted by Stalin in the autumn of 1924, in which the notion of a worldwide socialist revolution was abandoned in
favor of making the Soviet Union a successful socialist state.
soviet
council of workers and soldiers set up by Russian revolutionaries in 1917
total war
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
Tripartite Pact
1940 alliance between Japan, Germany, and Italy.
Triple Entente
an alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Weimar Republic
German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy.
Western Front
in WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
African National Congress
an organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for the black inhabitants of South Africa.
All-African People's Conference
meetings of Africans from across the continent
Salvador Allende
Socialist politician elected president of Chile in 1970 and overthrown by the military in 1973. He died during the military attack.
Fulgencio Batista
pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
Lazaro Cardenas
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry
civil disobedience
a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
corporatism
an arrangement in which government officials interact with people and groups outside the government before they set policy.
Charles De Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Blaise Diagne
Senegalese political leader. He was the first African elected to the French National Assembly.
W.E.B DuBois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
General Assembly
the supreme deliberative assembly of the United Nations
Che Guevara
(1928-1967) Argentinean revolutionary leader; he was an aide to Fidel Castro during the Cuban revolution.
Samuel Huntington
argued that our most important and dangerous future conflicts will be based on clashes of civilizations, not on socio-economic or even ideological differences
import substitution industrialization
an economic system that attempts to strengthen a country's industrial power by restricting foreign imports.
Iranian Cultural Revolution
(Iran) revolution after 1979 aimed at purifying the country from secular values and behaviors
Islamic fundamentalism
believers within Islam who offer a critique of secular states and seek to change states and individual behaviors to conform to a strict reading of Islamic texts
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian statesman who was the founder of Pakistan as a Muslim state (1876-1948)
Jomo Kenyatta
a nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya
Ruhollah Khomeini
Iranian religious leader who denounced the government
League of Arab States
regional organization designed to strengthen and unite countries with Arab majorities
"limited war"
a small scale war without nuclear weapons that involves just one area of the world
Nelson Mandela
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
Gamel Abdel Nasser
president of Egypt when Israel teamed up with Britain and France to invade the Sinai peninsula; looked good to the Arabs because he stood up to the imperialists
Jawaharlal Nehru
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).
Kwame Nkrumah
founder of Ghana's independence movement and Ghana's first priesident
Pahlavi dynasty
family that took over Iran's gov't in 1925; was an authoritarian regime; people didn't like them and it paved the way for the 1979 Revolution
Palestinian Liberation Organization
political party and organization that fought for Palestinian rights
Party of the Institutionalized Revolution
PRI; dominant political party in Mexico; developed during the 1920s and 1930s; incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors; controlled other political organizations in Mexico
Juan Peron
dominant authoritarian and populist leader in Argentina from the mid-1940s; driven into exile in 1955; returned and elected president in 1973; died in 1974.
Eva Peron
the second wife of President Juan Perón (1895-1974) and served as the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952
Potsdam Conference
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
Augusto Pinochet
Chilean militar leader who in a coup deposed Salvador Allende - communist, elected leader - created one party rule dictatorship - ruled w/ iron fist - human rights abuses
Franklin Roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
Security Council
main organ within the UN responsible for maintaining peace and security; composed of 5 permanent and 10 rotating members with two year terms elected by the General Assembly
space race
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
Sputnik
the world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Tehran Conference
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1943; agreed to the opening of a new front in France
"three waves" of democratization
HUNTINGTON
First Wave 1828-1926
-Removal of property limitations for voting
Reverse Wave 1922-1942
-Facism in Italy
Second Wave 1943-1962
Reverse Wave 1958-1975
- Pakistan, Latin America
Third Wave 1974-1990
Reverse Wave Late 1990s-2011
"Two Chinas"
Mainland and Taiwan: both claim to represent China
United Fruit Company
U.S. corporation that controlled the banana trade in much of Latin America
United Nations Charter
1945, The Allied Powers create an international agency to resolve conflicts among members and discourage aggressor nations with Military force
Getulio Vargas
became president of Brazil following a contested election of 1929; led an authoritarian state until deposed in 1945; became president again in 1950.
Yalta Conference
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
Zionist Movement
a nationalist movement among the Jews to establish a home land in Palestine
Al-Qaeda
Islamist terrorist organization that launched a series of attacks against U.S.
command economy
a system in which the central government makes all economic decisions
compressed modernity
rapid economic and political change that transforms a country into a stable nation
dependency theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
fragmentation
divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
glasnost
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
global elite culture
attitudes and outlook of well educated, prosperous, Western oriented people around the world.
global pop culture
popular cultural practices and institutions that have been adopted internationally, such as music, the Internet, television, food, and fashion
Green Revolution
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
cultural globalization
worldwide spread of similar norms, values, and practices
household responsibility system
the system put into practice in China beginning in the early 1980s in which major decisions about agricultural production are made by individual farm families based on profit motive rather than by a people's commune or the government.
human rights movement
changing the way society views the rights of all of its members including minorities, clients with terminal illness (euthanasia), pregnant women, and older adults
integration
the act of uniting or bringing together, especially people of different races
Nikita Khrushchev
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
less developed countries
a developing country with a low level of industrializationa very high fertility rate, very high infant mortality rate and a very low per capital income
more developed countries
countries with greater overall wealth. These countries tend to be more industrialized, bringing in money from manufacturing more goods
market economy
an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices
marketization
recreation of market forces of supply and demand
megacities
cities with more than 10 million people
mixed economy
an economic system that combines private and state enterprises
modernism
a cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated. Rationality, industry, and technology were cornerstones of progress and human achievement.
modernization model
model of economic development maintains that all countries go through five stages of development
non-governmental organizations
international organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social economic and environmental issues
perestroika
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
politicization of religion
the use of religious principles to promote political ends and vise versa
post-modernism
genre of art and literature and especially architecture in reaction against principles and practices of established modernism
Vladimir Putin
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.
socialist market economy
market economy that combines substantial state ownership of large industries with private enterprise, where both forms of ownership operate in a free-pricing market environment
special economic zones
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
stateless nations
people groups without established sovereign borders; such as Kurds or Palestinians
supranational organizations
cooperating groups of nations that operate on either a regional or international level.
Tiananmen crisis
demonstration by students intellectuals criticizing corruption and demanding democratic reforms, government responded by sending army in to cease protests who killed hundreds of citizens
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A 1946 United Nations covenant binding signatory nations to the observance of specified rights.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that can kill tens of thousands of people all at once
World Bank
a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
Boris Yeltsin
president of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
abolish
do away with formally
assembly line
production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks.
cartel
a formal organization of producers that agree to coordinate prices and production
communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
constitution
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
corporation
a business firm whose articles of incorporation have been approved in some state
doctrine
a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
domestic
produced in a particular country
emancipation
the act of setting free
enclosure
process of taking over and fencing off land once shared by peasant farmers
Estates-General
assembly of the estates of all France
factory
places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods
free market
economic system in which individuals decide for themselves what to produce and sell
free trade
the removal of trade barriers so that goods can flow freely between countries
immigration
movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population
imperialism
a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries
indemnity
legal exemption from liability for damages
Industrial Revolution
change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power
Laissez-Faire
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
labor union
an organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members
Marxism
the theory created by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that centers on communism and its inevitability.
nationalism
loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
natural resources
materials found in nature that are used by living things
rural
living in or characteristic of farming or country life
social class
a group of people with similar backgrounds, incomes, and ways of living
social Darwinism
the belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
suffrage
the right to vote
trade union
organization of workers with the same trade or skill
universal suffrage
the right of all adults to vote for their representatives.
wage labor
the arrangement by which workers get a regular paycheck in exchange for performing a specific task
American Revolution
the war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-83, by which the colonies won their independence.
Berlin Conference
a meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
Bloody Sunday
1905, peaceful protest to czar Nicholas II palace, led by Father Gapon, fired on by palace guards, 100s died
Boer Wars
a conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Dutch and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa.
Boxer Rebellion
a 1900 uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
British East India Company
joint stock company that obtained monopoly over trade in India; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed.
Capitulations
agreements with European powers that gave European bankers and merchants unfair advantages in the Ottoan Empire
Charles Dawin
In 1859, he published his book on the origin of species by means of natural selection.
Communist Manifesto
a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views
Congress of Vienna
restored a balance of power to Europe after Napoleon's reign
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Declaration of the Rights of Man
statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
The Diet of Japan
Japan's legislature made up of two houses
emancipation of serfs
Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained.
Empress Cixi
the dowager empress who encouraged and promoted the Boxer rebellion
Friederich Engels
German, self-educated in philosophy, financially supports Marx
Execution of Louis XVI
Louis XVI was killed due to his monarchial views on ruling France, which all of the citizens greatly disagreed with
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest who led peasants in call for independence and improved conditions
Indian National Congress
group formed by Hindu nationalist leaders of India in the late 1800's to gain greater democracy and eventual self-rule
intolerable acts
series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party
The Jewel in the Crown
India=Britains prized possesion
Mahmut II
Ottoman sultan; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents.
Karl Marx
founder of modern communism
Maxim guns
first automatic machine gun that gave Europeans a huge advantage in fighting African armies
Meiji Restoration
the modernization and industrialization of Japan in the 1800's
Monroe Doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Muhammad Ali
controlled Egypt by 1811; began a modernization process based on Western models but failed to greatly change Egypt; died in 1848.
Muslim League
an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations
Napoleon Bonaparte
general; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe
Open Door Policy
American approach to China around 1900, favoring open trade relations between China and other nations
Panama Canal
connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, built from 1904 - 1914.
Opium Wars
conflict between Britain and China in 1839 over the Opium trade
The Raj
the British rule of India
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Cecil Rhodes
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa
Rudyard Kipling
British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism
Russification
the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire
Russo-Japanese War
a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
Scramble for Africa
the European's flurry of colonializations in Africa.
Sepoy Mutiny
an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India
Seven Years War
worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land
Sino-Japanese War
a war between China and Japan for influence, power, and territory
Spanish American War
in 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Spheres of Influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly
Suez Canal
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
The State Duma of Russia
first introduced in 1906 and was Russia's first elected parliament.
steam engine
external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder
Taiping Rebellion
the most destructive civil war before the twentieth century; a Christian rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
unequal treaties
trade treaties that China signed under pressure of invasion; gave Western powers trade benefits
Otto von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
Wealth of Nations
British philosopher and writer Adam Smith's 1776 book that described his theory on free trade, otherwise known as laissez-faire economics.
White Man's Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
Witte Industrialization Program
1892 - Russian attempt to modernize and industrialize Russia to make the country more competitive with other nations.
Young Turks Party
a Turkish nationalist reform party in the early twentieth century, favoring reformation of the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Empire
abolitionists
people who believed that slavery should be against the law
balance of power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
bourgeoisie
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
Count Camillo di Cavour
named prime minister in 1852 by King Victor Emmanuel, he led the northern troops to victory and unification of Italy in 1861
conservatives
like to stick to the traditional ways of government and tend to oppose change
liberals
people who generally favor government action and view change as progress
radicals
those who favor extreme change
federalist system
powers shared by the government and its subunits
gens de couleur
free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution.
Father Miguel Hidalgo Y Costilla
priest who led the first major Mexican revolt against Spanish rule in 1810
Augustine Iterbide
changes sides after he defeats Jose Morelos. He fight for the power for the Creoles and in 1821 Mexico is free from Spain.
junta
a military group ruling a country after seizing power
Louis XVI
king of France-executed for treason by the National Convention-absolute monarch-husband of Marie Antoinette.
Napoleonic Code
French civil code established in the early 1800s; basis of many civil codes today and still remains France's civil code
National Assembly
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Jose de San Martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru
Alexis de Tocqueville
French political writer noted for his analysis of American institutions (1805-1859)
Francois Dominque Toussaint L'Ouverture
leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.
George Washington
commander of the Continental Army
Battle of Waterloo
this was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
break-of-bulk
a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.
cult of domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
demographic transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
electric telegraph
a device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire.
Samuel Gompers
led the AFL (American Federation of Labor), a skilled craft union, fought for wages and working conditions, they went on strike, boycotted and used collective bargaining
interchangeable parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring
mass production
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
proletariat
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
utopian socialism
ideal society based on socialist ideals-Louis Blanc and Charles Fourier
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Josiah Wedgewood
(1759) opened pottery business that mass-produced high quality porcelain at a low cost
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
the Bully of the North
the US was called this by the Latin Americans
caudillos
military rulers who emerged in new republics across latin america
Porfirio Diaz
a dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foriegn companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants
Dominion of Canada
the loose confederation of Ontario(upper Canada), Quebec(lower Canada), Nove Scotia, and New Brunswich, created by teh british North America Act in 1867
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939)
isolationism
a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
isolationist policy
a policy of abstaining from an active role in international affairs or alliances, which characterized US foreign policy toward Europe during most of the 1800's
Andrew Jackson
7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency
Benito Juarez
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
La Reforma
a liberal reform movement in 19th-century Mexico, led by Benito Juarez
Jose Antonio Paez
Venezulean soldier who led Simon Bolivar's cavalry force.
presidential system
a system of government in which the legislative and executive branches operate independently of each other
personalist rulers
rulers that became so due to their charismatic influence and personality
regionalism
a foreign policy that defines the international interests of a country in terms of particular geographic areas
romanticisim
reaction against the Enlightenment, nature, simplicity and the ideal
Juan Manuel de Rosas
strongman leader in buenos aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
Washington's Farewell Address
warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
anarchists
people who oppose organized government
Bolsheviks
a group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917
Boxer Revellion
revolt by China secret society to drive foreigners out
Canton System
restricted all foreign trade to the port of Canton (trading season)
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)
Crimean War
conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.
cult of the emperor
a propaganda move that glorified the Emperor and he became a symbol of Japanese power, but he still didn't have power
Decembrist Revolt
abortive attempt by army officers to take control of the Russian government upon the death of Tsar Alexander I in 1825
democratic centralism
a form of democracy in which the true interests of the masses were discovered through discussion within the Communist party, and then decisions were made under central leadership to serve those interests.
Holy Alliance
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna
Hong Xiuquan
was a village school teacher, proved both inspiration and leadership for the Taiping rebellion. Wanted destruction of the Qing dynasty.
intelligentsia
intellectuals; members of the educated elite (often used derogatorily)
V.I. Lenin
led the communist revolution, was the leader of the Bolsheviks, ruled Russia
marble boat
Empress Dowager Cixi spent millions of dollars to have parties on the boat. All the money was supposed to go to the Chinese Navy.
Leninism
revision of Marxism that held that Russia need not experience a bourgeois revolution before it could move toward socialism
Mccartney mission
Lord McCartney went to China as head of British diplomatic mission to get China to trade with Britain, failed when misunderstandings led to problems
most favored-nation status
agreement to offer a trading partner the lowest tariff rate offered to other trading partners
Florence Nightingale
English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910)
Matthew Perry
commodore of the US Navy who opened up Japan with the Treaty of Kanagawa
"black ships"
Japanese name for the American steam ships. Called this because of the black smoke coming out of them
Revolution of 1911
the revolution that resulted in China being turned into a republic soon after the death of Ci Xi
Revolution of 1905
result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities.
Russia's "official nationality"
The motto, "orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality" where it was the dominant ideological doctrine from emperor Nicholas I.
self-strengthening movement
late 19th century movement in China to counter the challenge from the West; led by provincial leaders
Sun Yat-sen
this man was a radical Chinese reformer who sought to overthrow the government
Tanzimat
A set of reforms designed to remake the Ottoman Empire on a western European model
Trans-Siberian Railroad
constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
Treaty of Nanking
a treaty with Britain and China that gave Hong Kong to Britain and opened 4 cities for trade
vanguard of the revolution
a group of revolutionary leaders who could provoke the revolution in non-capitalist Russia
What is to be Done?
Lenin's pamphlet in 20th century Russia that argued for the vanguard of the revolution.
the Young Turks
Nationalists who wanted Turkey to adopt western-style governments.
zemstvoes
local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave middle- class professionals experience in government but did not influence national policy.
Bessemer steel converter
an important innovation that allowed iron ore to be converted to steel efficiently
company men
British who lived in India for the EIC who were to protect factories and warehouses
Captain James Cook
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)
The Origin of Species
1859: Charles Darwin's book explained how various species evolve over time and only those with advantages can survive and reproduce
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
colonial imperialism
actual occupation and rule of a territory or colony by a foreign nation
political imperialism
dominant country uses diplomacy or military forces to influence the internal affairs
economic imperialism
independent but less developed nation that is controlled by private business interests rather than by other govts.
social-cultural imperialism
imperialism that influences a local territory to adopt mother country values and customs
Indian Civil Service
bureaucrats in India; government jobs were usually staffed by British; Indians eventually gain some of these positions
David Livingstone
Scottish missionary and explorer who discovered the Zambezi River and Victoria Falls (1813-1873)
nawabs
a Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor.
Cecil Rhodes
born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
Rammohun Roy
an Indian who pushed for reforms by combining Hinduism and western thought, promoted Indian nationalism
scientific racism
the use of scientific theories to support or validate racist attitudes or worldviews; also, to support classification of human beings into distinct biological races
sepoys
Indian troops who served in the British army
settlement colonies
colonies that many people migrated to from the mother country
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
Shaka
a Zulu chief in 1816 who used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state.
Henry Stanley
the man that found David Livingstone after he had been presumably lost in Africa and later took up his work
tropical dependencies
Western European possessions in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific where small numbers of Europeans ruled large indigenous populations
absolute monarch
ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people.
atheist
one who does not believe in God
capitalism
an economic system based on private property and free enterprise
cash crop
farm crop grown to be sold or traded rather than used by the farm family
circumnavigate
to sail completely around the world
colonization
system of settling new lands that remain under the government of their native land
commerce
the buying and selling of goods
commercial
related to business
commonwealth
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
continuity
the property of a continuous and connected period of time
convent
a religious residence especially for nuns
currency
the metal or paper medium of exchange that is presently used
deists
believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine
demography
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
divine right
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
dominant
exercising influence or control
divine
being or having the nature of a god
hedonism
an ethical system that evaluates the pursuit of pleasure as the highest good
hinder
to slow or impede the progress of
humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
institution
an organization founded and united for a specific purpose
jurisdiction
an area of authority or control; the right to administer justice
left-wing
the liberal, socialist, or radical section of a political party or system
mercantilism
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
monastic
related to monks or monasteries; removed from worldly concerns
monk
someone who withdraws from ordinary life, and lives alone or in a community, in order to devote oneself to prayer and work in total dedication to God
monopoly
(economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
morality
motivation based on ideas of right and wrong
nun
a woman who has taken a sacred vow to devote her life to prayer and service to the church
papacy
the government of the Roman Catholic Church
papal
having to do with the pope
parliament
a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Great Britain)
pope
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
revolution
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
right-wing
those who support political or social or economic conservatism
salvation
the state of being saved or preserved from harm
sanctioned
conforming to orthodox or recognized rules
satire
a type of writing that ridicules the shortcomings of people or institutions in an attempt to bring about a change
utopia
ideally perfect state
venerate
regard with feelings of respect and reverence
Age of Reason
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Akbar the Great
known for religious tolerance. grandson of Babur who created a strong central government
Batavia, Indonesia
fort established in 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Colombian Exchange
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa
Catholic Reformation
a 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
Dutch East India Company
government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
Edict of Nantes
document that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots
Edict of Fountainbleu
revoked Edict of Nantes- Huguenots lost right to practice Calvinism and fled
Elizabeth I
English Queen and politique who united Protestants and Catholics through compromise
encomienda system
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
English Bill of Rights
document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament
English Commonwealth
period in English history where the nation had no monarch; began w/ execution of Charles I and ended w/ restoration of Charles II; led by Oliver Cromwell
European exploration
voyages to new territories by European navigators in the 15th century,
Floating Empires
Portuguese and the Spanish set out to sea, controlled many major shipping routes
Goa, India
island off the coast of India that was the base of Portuguese trade
Gutenberg's Printing Press
this invention helped to promote the Reformation and increased European literacy
Hacienda system
similar to the feudal system, Natives got money and had to buy their products from their owners
Hapsburg Spain
Charles V was the king here and this is where counter reformation was strongest.
Henry Tudor
also known as Henry VII, victor of the War of the Roses, Lancasterian
heliocentric theory
planets revolve around the sun
huguenots
French Protestants
Indulgences
remission of the punishment for sin by the clergy in return for services or payments
Jannissary Corps
Christian boys who were taken by the Muslim Ottomans to train and serve in the military. They often converted to Islam as they lost all Christian influence.
Jesuit Order
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
Law of Heavenly Bodies
Copernicus believed that heavenly bodies were in constant rotation
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation
Louis XIV
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
Qing Dynasty
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during the Qing dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu
Peter the Great
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
Philip II of Spain
this was the king who started the success of Spain's foreign colonies
Potosi Silver Mine
silver mine in the interior of South America; great silver mountain that would bring Spanish wealth
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Scientific Methods
a series of steps followed to solve problems, including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
Scientific Revolution
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method
Silver (Single) Whip System
1581, imposed by Chief Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng ordered that all land taxes in China must be paid in silver; this reform monetized the Chinese tax system
Straits of Malacca
well-traveled stretch of water between Malaysia and Indonesia used for trade along the Spice Route
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 'The Lawgiver.' he expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
Thirty Years War
this was the international war between the Protestants and Catholics that eventually ended religious conflicts in Europe
Tokugawa Shogunate
Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences
Treaty of Westphalia
1648, ended the 30 Year War and created the state system.
The Vatican
the palace in Rome in which the Pope lives; the control center of the Roman Catholic Church
Zheng He
Chinese admiral during the Ming Dynasty, he led great voyages that spread China's fame throughout Asia
95 Theses
written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation.
absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Anglican Church
church that King Henry VIII of England creates so that he can marry and divorce as he pleases
Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601) established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form
Nicholas Copernicus
He thought that the sun was the center & the plants went around the sun in circles
"early modern" period
the time period of 1450 - 1750
(it is called this because events occurring in this time directly shape regional/political units of todays world)
empirical evidence
scientific evidence obtained by careful observation and experimentation
English Civil War
conflict from 1640-1660; religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues (the powers of the monarch); ended w/ restoration of the monarch following execution of previous king
Enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
Gunpowder Empires
Muslim empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and the Mughals that employed cannonry and gunpowder to advance their military causes.
Johann Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
joint-stock companies
businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses
Johannes Kepler
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
land-based powers
governments controlled lands by building armies, bureaucracies, and roads, etc. that unified regions
sea-based powers
nations who built larger empires by controlling sea routes and colonies
Leonardo da Vinci
A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa.
constitutional monarchy
a system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
Niccolo Machiavelli
a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527)
Medici family
powerful banking family who ruled Florence in the 1400s, patrons of the arts
Mercator Projection
a map projection of the earth onto a cylinder
Baron de Montesqieu
created the idea of seperation of power
Nasir al-Din
Islamic 13th century scholar who wrote mathematical tables
Isaac Newton
defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe.
patrons
a person who supports artists, especially financially
putting-out system
system of merchant-capitalists delivering raw materials to cottage workers for processing and payment
Raphael
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
"Renaissance Man"
a scholar during the Renaissance who (because knowledge was limited) could know almost everything about many topics
Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher that believed the right to rule should be from the people, not a king.
rule of law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
William Shakespeare
English dramatist and poet; considered one of the greatest writers in the English Language
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Voltaire
believed in religious tolerance and freedom of speech
Atahualpa
last ruling Inca emperor of Peru. He was executed by the Spanish.
caravel
a small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
castas
middle-level status between Europeans and pure minorities (made up of mezitos and mulattoes)
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
conquistadors
Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
creoles
descendents of Spanish-born but born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
Vasco Da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India
Bartholomew Dias
Portuguese navigator that discovered the Cape of Good Hope
encomenderos
Spanish settlers who were in charge of the natives working on the encomiendas
Atlantic Circuit
the network of trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
indentured servant
person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to America.
Bartholome de Las Casas
a Spanish priest who settled in the New World and was against the torture and genocide of Native Americans.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
Manila galleons
Heavily armed, fast ships that brought luxury goods from China to Mexico and carried silver from Mexico to China.
mestizos
people of Native American and European descent
Middle Passage
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Moctezuma
Aztec emperor defeated and killed by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.
mulattos
people of mixed African and European ancestry
peninsulares
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Protestant work ethic
way of life based on Biblical teaching that God expects all men to work and all work is a noble duty to be performed toward God
Treaty of Tordesillas
set the boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
viceroyalties
provinces ruled by viceroys, direct representatives of the monarch.
viceroys
representatives of the Spanish monarch in Spain's colonial empire
Yongle
Chinese Ming emperor who pushed foreign exploration and promoted cultural achievements such as the Yongle Encyclopedia.
African Diaspora
the forced removal of Africans from their homeland to serve as slaves in the Americas
Asante
African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory
Benin
a kingdom that arose near the Niger River delta in the 1300s and became a major West African state in the 1400s
Cape Colony
a former province of southern South Africa that was settled by the Dutch in 1652 and ceded to Great Britain in 1814
Dahomey
West African kingdom that became strong through its rulers' exploitation of the slave trade.
Olaudah Equiano
sold into slavery at age 11; after gaining freedom, he spoke out against slavery and published his autobiography
Kongo
kingdom based on agriculture; formed on lower Kongo River; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy
"army of the pure"
Sikh army that challenged the Mughals
Babur
founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.
devshirme
Ottoman policy of taking boys from Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
"Divine Faith"
one of Akbar's attempts to reconcile Muslim and Hindu people; a combination of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Christian and Sikh
Fatehepur Sikri
pre-mughal Indian, Persian, and central Asian architecture. Seen in forts, palaces, gardens, mosques, tombs, cenotaphs.
guru
each of the first ten leaders of the Sikh religion
Hidden Imam
12th descendant of Ali who disappeared as a child
imam
a leader of prayer in a mosque
Ismail
this man was a ruthless leader of the Safavid Empire who executed all Sunni Muslims in his empire
Mughal Empire
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Nanuk
(1469-1539) stressed meditation and drew upon Islam and Hinduism; first guru
Ottoman Empire
major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa
purdah
the traditional Middle Eastern custom of seclusion for women
qizilbash
swordsmen calvary of the Safavid
Safavid Empire
Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled Persia between 16th and 18th centuries
sati
Hindu custom that called for a wife to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral pyre
Shah Abbas I
the fifth and most renowned ruler of the Safavid dynasty in Iran (r. 1587-1629); moved the royal capital to Isfahan in 1598.
sikhism
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
Taj Mahal
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife
Twelver Shi'ism
a religion based on Muslim beliefs, as well as the 'hidden Imam'
"alternate attendance"
practice of shoguns requiring samuari to spend extended periods of time at the court in Edo
boyars
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
cossaks
undertook their own campaigns of expansion and vastly extended the range of Russian influence.
daimyos
powerful warlord that controlled big estates; the best person from this class would become the shogun
"floating worlds"
term for centers of urban culture in Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
general under Nobunaga; leading military power in central Japan; broke power of the diamyos; became military master in 1590
Tokugawa Ieyasu
this man established a shogunate that would dominate Japan for hundreds of years
Ivan III
"Ivan the Great"; ruled as great prince and first ruler of the independent state called Russia
Ivan IV
the Terrible, beat the Mongols, Tartars, and the Poles, forced nobles into service, first ruler to take the title tsar
Kangxi
Qing emperor (r. 1662-1722). He oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire.
Qianlong
ruler that helped to secure Qing borders but ended up causing the downfall of the Qing Dynasty
queue
the braided pigtail that was traditionally worn by Chinese males in Qing Dynasty
Matteo Ricci
Italian Jesuit who wanted to convert China to Christianity during the Ming dynasty
Romanov Family
royal family that ruled Russia for over 300 years that was overthrown and killed by Lenin
Table of Ranks
created by Peter, it creates opportunities for nonnobles to serve the state and join the nobility ... nobility based on merit
"Window on the West"
St. Petersburg on newly acquired lands on the Baltic Sea
caliph
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
chivalry
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
civil service
the group of people who carry out the work of the government, selected by an exam in China
credit
arrangement for deferred payment for goods and services
decentralized
governmental power is spread among more than one person or group
dowry
money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage
Eastern Orthodox
this Christian religion broke away from the Roman church when it would not accept the authority of the Pope as the head of the church
fiefs
pieces of land given to vassals by their lord
Garrisons
military bases on the Silk Road to protect travelers on their journey
Gothic
relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires
Hajj
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
heresy
a belief that rejects the orthodox tenets of a religion
heretic
a person who holds religious beliefs in conflict with the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church
hijab
a headscarf worn by Muslim women
illegitimate
contrary to or forbidden by law
infrastructure
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
interaction
the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
Inquisition
a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church (1232-1820) created to discover and suppress heresy
interrogation
formal questioning by persons in authority, especially in the church
Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
literate
able to read and write
matriarch
a female head of a family or tribe
medieval
relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
meritocracy
the belief that rulers should be chosen for their superior abilities and not because of their wealth or birth
Middle Ages
the period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance
migration
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
monetary system
system of coins and bills to create a standard value of wealth
mosque
a Muslim house of worship
Muslim
a believer or follower of Islam
nation-state
a country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity
orthodox
adhering to the traditional and established, especially in religion
patriarch
the male head of family or tribe
patriarchal
male led society and household
persecution
the abuse of a person or group because of their beliefs or appearance
pilgrims
people on a religious journey
pilgrimage
a journey to a sacred place
primogeniture
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
Roman Catholic
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
schism
division of a group into opposing factions
secluded
hidden from general view or use
serfs
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection
submissive
willing to submit without resistance to authority
subordinate
rank or order as less important or consider of less value
trans-continental
spanning or crossing a continent
tribute systems
allowed reciprocal trade under both imperial protection and imperial regulation and barred entry into this trade by those who did not participate
Baghdad
capital city of Iraq; as heart of the Arab Empire, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E.
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Bubonic Plague
disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism. Rats, fleas.
Chang-an
capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time.
Constantinople
previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.
Crusades
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
Empress Wu
the only woman to rule China in her own name, expanded the empire and supported Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty.
European feudalism
was made up of a king, the next level was church officials and nobles, then knights, peasants, finally merchants
Japanese feudalism
emperor (has no real power) -> shogun (has the real power) - hereditary -> daimyo (the lower nobles under the shogun) -> samurai (knights)
foot-binding
practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
Franks
a Germanic tribe that conquered present-day France and neighboring lands in the 400s
Charlemagne
king of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning
Ghengis Khan
Mongol leader who led their conquest westward and who is renowned for his ability and his ruthlessness.
Hanseatic League
an organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
Hundred Years War
the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
Code of Justinian
compilation of the complex system of Roman laws; became the system of laws for the Byzantine Empire
Magna Carta
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
Mansa Musa
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west Africa
neo-Confucianism
a philosophy that emerged in Song-dynasty China; it revived Confucian thinking while adding in Buddhist and Daoist elements
sacking of Constantinople
1453; sacked becuse it was the most logical place to rule. Mehmet the conqueror; Solidly Christian; considered a huge blow to western Christianity
St. Cyril
a missionary in the 9th century who invented an alphabet for the Slavic language
cyrillic alphabet
an alphabet drived from the Greek alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages
Schism in Christianity
the medieval division between Eastern Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church
schism in Islam
the Shia / Sunni split which occurred in the decades immediately following the death of the Prophet Mohammed in 632
Shintoism
the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma
Timbuktu
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning
Tenochitlan
Aztec capital city (now the site of Mexico City)
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
Abu Bakr
first caliph after death of Muhammad
animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
Bedouins
small groups of nomadic people in Arabia
Black Stone
meteorite placed in shrine (Ka'ba) in Mecca, Muslims pay homage to it
caliphate
the territorial jurisdiction of a caliph
Five Pillars of Faith
five steps to take to become less evil, part of the Islam religion; affirmation, prayer, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage
"golden age"
period of great cultural achievement
hadith
(Islam) a tradition based on reports of the sayings and activities of Muhammad and his companions
harem
living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household
jihad
Islamic holy war
jinns
desert spirits (associated w/ demonic shaitans)
Ka'ba
the stone cubical structure in the courtyard of the Great Mosque of Mecca, believed to have been built by Abraham and regarded by Muslims as the sacred center of the earth
madrasas
Islamic institutions of higher education that originated in the tenth century.
minaret
the tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
Muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
The Night Journey
Muhammad's supreme mystical experience, woken by Gabriel, went to heaven and saw prophets, told by Allah to pray five times a day
People of the Book
what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god
Qur'an
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Seal of the Prophets
Muhammad's name for himself, signifying that he was the final prophet of Allah.
Seljuk Turks
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader
shari'a
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Shi'ites
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali
Sunni
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
Sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
sultan
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
The Thousand and One Nights
a popular Muslim literature that included collection of fairy tales, parables, and legends
ulama
Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies.
Umayyad Dynasty
established by Muawiya, moved capital from Medina to Damascus, that action split Islam (Shi'ites & Sunnites)
umma
the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan
vizier
a high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries
barter
exchange goods without involving money
Benedictine Rule
a collection of rules or guidelines for monks and monasteries; named for Benedict of Nursia; widely used in Europe in the Middle Ages
Byzantine Empire
empire that grew from the eastern part of the former Roman Empire; lasted until around 1400
caesaropapism
the dual role of the state and leader of the church in which a temporal ruler extends his own powers to theological and ecclesiastical matters
canon law
the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals
Carolingian family
a group of Frankish nobles that took control of the Frankish empire
Clovis
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
excommunication
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
interdict
an ecclesiastical censure by the Roman Catholic Church withdrawing certain sacraments and Christian burial from a person or all persons in a particular district
ghettos
sections of towns and cities in which Jews were forced to live.
guilds
an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards
Hagia Sophia
the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
Holy Roman Empire
loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Justinian
Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians
manorialism
economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.
missi dominici
agents of Emperor Charlemagne who traveled throughout the empire to check the condition of the roads, listen to grievances, and see that justice was done
pogroms
organized violence against Jews
Renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
Saladin
(1137-1193) powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
Sassanid Empire
the name of the last pre-Islamic Iranian empire. It was one of the two main powers in Western Asia for a period of more than 400 years.
scholasticism
a philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Theodora
the wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt.
usury
the act of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest
vernacular languages
everyday speech that varies from place to place
Vikings
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western Europe from the eighth through the tenth century.
ayllus
in Incan society, a clan or community that worked together on projects required by the ruler
Aztecs
also known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax.
Cahokia
an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.
chinampas
floating farming islands made by the Aztec
classical Mesoamerica
period of the Mayan and the Teotihuacan, low population, simple government.
Inca
a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s
khipus
recording devices used in the incan empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region
Maya
extensive Mesoamerican culture that made great advances in astronomy in areas such as their famous calendar
mit'a
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations.
Moche
civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples.
Quechua
Andean society also known as the Inca
Quetzalcoatl
an Aztec deity represented as a plumed serpent
slash and burn agriculture
a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land
stelae
large memorial pillars to commemorate triumphs and events in the lives of Maya rulers.
Teotihuacan
first major metropolis in Mesoamerica, collapsed around 800 CE. It is most remembered for the gigantic "pyramid of the sun".
Toltecs
powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica.
Topiltzin
most influential Toltec leader; dedicated to the god Quetzalcoatl
bakufu
military-style government of the Japanese shogun
Du Fu
a famous chinese poet who wrote "spring landscape" and his poems were base on the suffering of his own life
equal fields system
equal land distribution, certain amt. of land after death of family member re distributed (for $), allowed for more revenue (want peasants to invest in civil service exam)
Fujiwara family
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power
hegemony
the domination of one state over its allies
Heian Era
high level of culture and learning, court structure and court intrigue, Imperial families and their courts, women and male roles in Japan
Il-Khan
a khanate expanding through Armenia, Azerbaijan, Mesopotamia, and Iran,
Jagadai
khanate situated between all other 3 khanates, most famous ruler was Timur, who expanded this khanate by conquering India and attempting to capture China as well
Khanate of the Golden Horde
the Mongol empire, that, after the fall of Kiev, ruled all of southern Russia for 200 years
Khanate of the Great Khan
also known as the Yuan dynasty, included Mongolia and China
Koryo Dynasty
ruled Korea from the late 9th century to 1892
kowtow
a Chinese custom of touching the ground with the forehead as a sign of respect or submission
Kubilai Khan
grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established Sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271
Li Bo
most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Liao Empire
916-1121. Mongolia and Northern China. Ceramics, painting, armies (cavalry and seize craft). 1110- Song made alliance with Jurchens (neighbors). Song took over.
Mencius
major follower of Confucius; stressed that humans were essentially good and that governments required the consent of their subjects.
"The Middle Kingdom"
Chinese belief that they were the center of the world
Ming Dynasty
succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Alexander Nevskii
prince of Novgorod; submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240
Osman
most successful warrior and "founder" of Ottomans
Ottoman Turks
Turkish group ruled by the Ottoman dynasty; formed an empire that lasted from about 1300 to 1922. The group that proved to be the greatest threat to the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century.
Pax Mongolica
era of relative peace and stability created by the Mongol Empire
samurai
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
shogun
the head of the military government of Japan in the era of the samurai
Silla Dynasty
the dynasty in Korea that rallied to prevent Chinese domination in the seventh century CE.
Song Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279; noted for art and literature and philosophy
Sui Dynasty
the short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China
The Tale of Genji
written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any languange; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor's son; evidence for mannered style of the Japanese society.
Tang Dynasty
dynasty often referred to as China's Golden age that reigned during 618 - 907 AD; China expands from Vietnam to Manchuria
Temujin
birth name of the Mongol leader better known as Chinggis Khan (1162-1227)
Uighurs
Turkic empire of the steppes; flourished in eighth century CE
Xi Xia Empire
kingdom of the Tangut people that was north of Song kingdom in mid-11th century that collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry
Yuan Dynasty
dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song (1279-1368)
Africanity
perceived unity of the sub-Saharan cultures.
communal cities
- sameness
- represent the culture around them
- move native to the city
- homogenous with a sense of purpose (ex. agriculture)
- lots of these in Europe
convergent cities
- people from all over make up the cities
- Indian Ocean area
- combine under the goal of trade
- seen in China and the Islamic world
Delhi Sultanate
centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders.
Ghana
the first West African kingdom based on the gold and salt trade
Great Zimbabwe
in southeastern Africa the Shona people established this city which grew into an empire built on the gold trade. By 1450, this city was mysteriously abandoned.
griots
a west African storyteller
Hausa
a group of people named after the language they spoke. They first emerged in what is today northern Nigeria between 1000 and 1200.
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Mali
empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
Songhai
a West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1591
stateless society
a group of independent villages organized into clans and led by a local ruler or clan head without any central government
Sundiata
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
Swahili Coast
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River; from the Arabic sawahil, meaning 'shores.'
postclassical Mesoamerica
era of Aztecs
agriculture
the deliberate tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
agrarian
a society that depends on agriculture is...
bands/clans
basic unit of social organization among foragers; includes fewer than 100 people in a nomadic, small, mobile, kin-based groups with little differential power.
barbarian
a person belonging to a tribe or group that is considered uncivilized
bureaucracy
a government organized by department
civilization
a society with reliable food surplus, specialized occupations, social class distinctions, cities, complex governments, trade, and an organized writing system
city-states
large towns that conquered the surrounding countryside; often competed with each other
classical
the period from approximately 600 BCE to 600 CE
domestication
the taming of animals for human use, such as work or as food
economy
the way civilizations manage money and resources for the production of goods and services
egalitarian
a society in which all people are relatively equal
emperor
the ruler of an empire
empire
a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
feudalism
loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord
foraging
a food-getting strategy that does not involve food production or domestication of animals
hierarchy
the organization of people at different ranks in an administrative body
hierarchical
arranging things one above the other by rank
hunter-gatherer
a member of a nomadic group whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods.
irrigation
a way of supplying water to an area of land
monarchy
a government ruled by a king or queen
monotheism
belief in one god
neolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution. It follows the Paleolithic period.
nomadic
(of groups of people) tending to travel and change settlements frequently
pastoral
societies that were characterized by the domestication of animals but usually did not settle down and farm or build towns.
paleolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic Period.
philosophy
a basic viewpoint of the system of values of an individual or society
polytheism
the worship of many gods
river valley
the fertile land surrounding a river
sedentary
not migratory; settled
settlement
a community of people smaller than a town
substistence
condition in which people produce only enough to survive
surplus
more than is needed, desired, or required
sustenance
the act of sustaining life by food or providing a means of subsistence
theocracy
government by divine power or priests
traditional
pertaining to time-honored orthodox doctrines
urbanization
the growth of cities
vassals
person granted land by a feudal lord in return for services
Alexander the Great
356-323 b.c., king of Macedonia 336-323: conqueror of Greek city-states and of the Persian empire from Asia Minor and Egypt to India.
Analects
the collection of Confucius's thoughts and sayings
Bronze Age
the latter part of the Neolithic Era, characterized by the use of a new, stronger metal
Byzantium
the eastern portion of the Roman empire; lasted 1000 years after the fall of Western Rome
calendar
a system of timekeeping that defines the beginning and length and divisions of the year
Code of Hammurabi
credited as the first written law code; written by a Babylonian king and established the basis for law codes
cuneiform
the form of writing developed by the Sumerians
democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Eight Fold Path
eight guides to thought and conduct in the Buddhism religion
Four Noble Truths
as taught by the Buddha, the four basic beliefs that form the foundation of Buddhism
Gothic Migrations
were the migrations of the visigoths into the buffer states of Rome then into Rome itself
Great Wall
a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC
Han Dynasty
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
Hellenism
the principles and ideals associated with classical Greek civilization
The Huns
source of raids on Rome; fierce warriors from Central Asia. First invaded southeastern Europe and then launched raids on nearby kingdoms
Indian Ocean Trade
world's richest maritime trading network that was essential for the prosperity of East Africa
Iron Age
the period following the Bronze Age; characterized by rapid spread of another metal in tools and weapons
Jewish Diaspora
the scattering of the Jewish people outside their homeland beginning about 586 BCE
legalism
Chinese philosophy developed by Hanfeizi; taught that humans are naturally evil and therefore need to be ruled by harsh laws
Pax Romana
a period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
pyramids
monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.
Roman Republic
the period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate
Roman Senate
a council of wealthy and powerful Romans that advised the city's leaders
Shang Civilization
early civilization centered on the Huang Ho of northern China, dating from c. 1766 to 1122 BC.
Shi Huang Di
harsh ruler who united China for the first time and used legalism in ruling (Qin China)
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
Silk Road
the trade route that linked the Eurasian land mass
The Torah
the most sacred text of Judaism
The Vedas of Hinduism
one of the sources of prayers, verses, and descriptions of the origins of the universe, guide Hindus
Xiongnu
nomadic raiders from the grasslands north of China during the reign of Han dynasty; emperor Wudi fought against them in the mid-100s BC
Ziggurats
temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped
bipedalism
the ability to walk upright on two legs
Catal Hayuk
a large neolithic city in modern Turkey; used stone and bone for tools but died out before metal was used, from 6500BCE-5700BCE.
cultural diffusion
the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
division of labor
characteristic of civilizations in which different people perform different jobs
horticulture
cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes
independent invention
development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances
Jericho
oldest Neolithic community in the West Bank between Israel and Jordan
Lucy
the first human who left remains of her bones; she lived around 3.5 million years ago.
"marker events" of pre-history
the Neolithic Revolution is the first one of these
Neolithic craft industries
pottery, metallurgy, and textiles were...
Neolithic (Agricultural) Revolution
change from food gathering to food producing (around 8000 BCE)
primary sources
eyewitness accounts of history. They include letters, diaries, speeches, and interviews.
specialization
development of different kinds of jobs
Akkadian Empire
began in 2350 BCE when Sargon - King of Akkad - began conquering Sumerian cities. The empire was the first to unite city-states under a single ruler and ruled for 200 years.
Amon-Re
the ancient Egyptian god of the sun
amulets
good luck charms used by ancient Egyptians to keep away evil spirits and prevent injury.
Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
Assyrians
very harsh people who exploited the use of iron weapons to build their Mesopotamian empire, which lasted less than 100 years. they had a king with absolute power
Babylonians
extended their empire and helped bring civilization to other parts of the Middle East; famous for Hammurabi's Law Code
Book of the Dead
scrolls that served as a guide for the afterlife in ancient Egypt
Book of Songs
the earliest collection of Chinese poetry; it provides glimpses of what life was like in the early Zhou Dynasty
cataracts
rapids along a river, such as those along the Nile in Egypt
Chavin
the first major South American civilization, which flourished in the highlands of what is now Peru from about 900 to 200 B.C.
Confucianism
ideas of Confucius, emphasizing such values as family, tradition, and mutual respect
cosmopolitanism
the ideology that all human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality.
cultural hearths
the areas where civilizations first began that radiated the customs, innovations, and ideologies that culturally transformed the world
Dravidian
a member of one of the aboriginal races of India (pushed south by Caucasians and now mixed with them)
dynasty
a powerful family or group of rulers that maintains its position or power for some time
Epic of Gilgamesh
an epic poem from Mesopotamia, and among the earliest known works of literary writing.
Fertile Crescent
a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
Hammurabi
Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)
Harappa
a large ancient city of the Indus civilization, created in present-day Pakistan
Hittites
created an empire in western Asian and threatened the power of the Egyptians; were the first Indo-Europeans to use iron
Horus
Egyptian falcon-headed solar god
Hyksos
a group of nomadic invaders from southwest Asia who ruled Egypt from 1640 to 1570 B.C.
Isis
Egyptian goddess of fertility
labor systems
system of labor in which people do specialized jobs
Late Bronze Age
1600-1200 B.C.; also called the Mycenaean Age.
law code
written set of laws
loess
fine, light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China.
ma'at
the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head
Mandate of Heaven
the Chinese (Zhou) theory that Heaven gives the king a mandate to rule only as long as he rules in the interests of the people
matrilineal
relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
Menes
united the kingdoms of lower and upper Egypt and created first Egyptian dynasty
Mesopotamia
the land between the Tigris and Euphrates
Minoans
earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C.
Mohenjo-Daro
Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system., One of the first settlements in India
monsoon rains
seasonal winds crossing the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia during the summertime that bring extreme rain and flooding
Myceneans
people from Greek mainland who conquered central Crete; warring people who grouped themselves into clans and tribes
Olmec
the earliest-known Mesoamerican civilization, which flourished around 1200 B.C. and influenced later societies throughout the region.
oracle bones
one of the animal bones or tortoise shells used by ancient Chinese priests to communicate with the gods
papyrus
tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times, especially for paper making
patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
pharoah
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political leader
pictographs
pictures that stand for words or ideas; picture writing
Rosetta Stone
a huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing.
Semetic
a major branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family including Hebrew, Arabic, Aramaic, and many more
shaman
an ancient doctor, healer, or priest, they were called upon for religious ceremonies
shi
educated bureaucrats who were one of the three main social groups of ancient China.
social mobility
a change in position within the social hierarchy
Sumerians
people who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
systems failure
a breakdown of the political, social, and economic systems supporting a civilization
Zhao Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
"3rd century crisis"
Rome; barbarian invasions lead to financial stress, new taxes, debased coinage, and inflation created. financial crisis leads to political crisis, social problems also a problem
Actium
the battle where Octavian crushed Antony and Cleopatra and took over the Roman empire
Aristotle
Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
Ashoka
a ruler of the Mauryan Empire who converted to Buddhism
atman
in Hindu belief, a person's essential self
Attila
leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire's borders during the 5th century
Augustus Caesar (Octavian)
the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.
Buddhism
a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire
calligraphy
art of beautiful handwriting
castes
social groups into which people are born and cannot change
varna
a basic subdivision of humanity in the Hindu caste system
jati
sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function
classical civilizations
large civilizations with massive size and political strength, complex cultures, numerous and qualitative written records, complex long distance trade, increased contacts with other people, and more direct influence on modern civilization; in the Mediterranean, the Indian subcontinent, and East Asia.
Cleisthenes
made athenian assembly-law making body, granted some citizenship to some imms. and former slaves. set-up council of 500, introduced Ostracism
Cleopatra
last pharaoh of Egypt; had relationships with Julius Caesar and Marc Antony; Octavian's enemy
Constantine
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
consuls
chief executives elected to run the government in ancient Rome
Cyrus the Great
king of Persia and founder of the Persian empire (circa 600-529 BC)
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Delian League
an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians
desertification
the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
Diocletian
Roman emperor who divided the empire into a West and an East section.
equites
class of business people and landowners in ancient Rome who had wealth and power
Etruscans
the group of people who ruled Rome before Romans revolted
forbidden city
a walled section of Beijing that encloses the palace that was formerly the residence of the emperor of China
Gupta Empire
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism
Greek "Classical Age"
500-338 BC, also known as the golden age of Greece.
Han Wudi
extended the Chinese borders to its extent in Imperial China; Trained Civil Services; "Silk Road"
Hellenic culture
of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the ancient Greeks or their language, culture, thought, etc., esp. before the time of Alexander the Great.
Hellenistic synthesis
the blending of Greek and local cultures on the territories conquered by Alexander the Great's armies; as a result a distinct new culture emerged
helots
Spartan word for their slaves, who were the conquered Messenians
Hinduism
the major Indian religious system, which had its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryans who settled India after 1500 B.C.
hoplites
heavily armed Greek infantrymen who marched and fought in close ranks; most of the recruits were middle-class citizens
Julius Caesar
the general during the Roman Republic who took over after the civil war and established Rome as an empire.
Laozi
Chinese Daoist philosopher; taught that governments were of secondary importance and recommended retreat from society into nature.
lateen sail
triangular sail that made it possible to sail against the wind; used in the Indian Ocean trade
Law of the Twelve Tables
Roman code of law administered by Augustus Caesar
Marathon
a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians
Mark Antony
Caesar's right-hand man, teamed with Octavian to punish Caesar's murders, fell in love with Cleopatra, went into civil war, at Battle of Actium, he and Cleopatra fled and committed suicide
Mauryan Dynasty
first ruler was Chandragupta Maurya; unified much of the entire subcontinent; large armies with thousands of chariots and elephant borne troops; developed a substantial bureaucracy with a postal service; autocratic government
natural law
a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society
aristocracy
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
Mycenaeans
first Greek-speaking people; invaded Minoans; dominated Greek world 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C.; sea traders; lived in separate city-states; invovled in Trojan War against Troy
plebians
members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders
patron-client relationship
Ancient Roman: a fundamental social relationship in which the patron-a wealthy and powerful individual-provided legal and economic protection and assistance to clients, men of lesser status and means, and in return the clients supported their patrons
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta
Pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
Phoenicians
located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform
phonetic alphabet
an alphabet that contains a different symbol for each individual sound in a language; in this alphabet there is a one to one relationship between sounds and symbols
Plato
(430-347 BCE) qas a disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection.
polis
a city-state in Ancient Greece
princeps
Latin for "first citizen." Augustus and other Roman emperors gave themselves this title to distinguish themselves from Hellenistic monarchs
Qin Dynasty
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
Punic Wars
the three wars waged by Rome against Carthage, 264-241, 218-201, and 149-146 b.c., resulting in the destruction of Carthage and the annexation of its territory by Rome.
reincarnation
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
satraps
governors of provinces in the Persian Empire
Roman Empire
an empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western Empire and the Eastern Empire
scholar-gentry
Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China.
secularism
the view that the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil or public affairs
Socrates
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
stirrup
device for securing a horseman's feet, enabling him to wield weapons more effectively. First evidence of the use of stirrups was among the Kushan people of northern Afghanistan in approximately the first century C.E.
Terra Cotta Army
army to protect Shi Huangdi in the afterlife; 700,000 clay soldiers
tribunes
official who was elected by the Plebeians to protect their interests
Triumvirate
in ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government.
tyrants
in ancient Greece, rulers who seized power by force but who ruled with the people's support; later came to refer to rulers who exercise brutal and oppressive power
Upishads
sacred Hindu texts dealing with metaphysics
Virgil
greatest poet of the Golden Age, called the "Homer of Rome" because the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models for his epic, the Aeneid; focus on Patriotism; it took 10 years to write
Warring States Period
time of warfare between regional lords following the decline of the Zhou dynasty in the 8th century B.C.E.
Xerxes
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
Abraham
the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac
Bhagavad-Gita
(Hinduism) the sacred 'song of God' composed about 200 BC and incorporated into the Mahabharata (a Sanskrit epic)
boddhisatva
Buddhist worthy of nirvana who postpones it to help others
dharma
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
diaspora
the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture)
ethnic religions
focus on one ethnic group and generally have not spread into other cultures
Hebrew Bible
the name used by Jews for their scripture that is basically the same as Christians' Old Testament.
Jesus of Nazareth
a teacher and prophet born in bethlehem and active in nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Mahabhrata
one of two Indian epics, also a religious text, provides information about the period of intermingling of cultures. The other epic is Ramayana.
moksha
the Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
mudras
choreographed hand movements used in the rituals of vajrayana buddhism
nirvana
the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires
Paul
(New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles
Ramayana
one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne
reciprocity
the obligation to return in kind what another has done for us
Rig Veda
a collection of 1,017 Sanskrit hymns composed about 1500 BC or earlier; Hinduism's oldest sacred text.
Shiva
an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer
universalizing religions
a religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Vishnu
a Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
xiao
filial piety, the virtue of reverence and respect for family (CONFUCIANISM)
ren
an attitude of kindness and benevolence or a sense of humanity for Confucianism.
li
calls for individuals to behave in conventionally appropriate fashion in Confucianism.
yin-yang
in Daoist belief, complementary factors that help to maintain the equilibrium of the world. One is associated with masculine, light, and active qualities while the other with feminine, dark, and passive qualities.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.