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Apologia Biology 2nd Ed. Module 6 part 1 of 2


the transport of dissolved substances into cells


the breakdown of absorbed substances


the breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy


the removal of soluble waste materials


the removal of nonsoluble waste materials


the release of biosynthesized substances


maintaining the status quo


producing more cells


the study of cells

cell wall

a rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells

middle lamella

the thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells

plasma membrane

the semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings


a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended


substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons

cytoplasmic streaming

the motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents


the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy


the organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids


non-membrane-bound organelles responsible for protein synthesis

endoplasmic reticulum

an organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell

rough ER

ER that is dotted with ribosomes

smooth ER

ER that has no ribosomes

golgi bodies

the organelles in which proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell


organelles that store starches or oils

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