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23 terms

Apologia Biology 2nd Ed. Module 6 part 1 of 2

Apologia Biology 2nd Ed. Module 6 part 1 of 2
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absorption
the transport of dissolved substances into cells
digestion
the breakdown of absorbed substances
respiration
the breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy
excretion
the removal of soluble waste materials
egestion
the removal of nonsoluble waste materials
secretion
the release of biosynthesized substances
homeostasis
maintaining the status quo
reproduction
producing more cells
cytology
the study of cells
cell wall
a rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells
middle lamella
the thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
plasma membrane
the semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings
cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
ions
substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons
cytoplasmic streaming
the motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents
mitochondria
the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
lysosome
the organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids
ribosomes
non-membrane-bound organelles responsible for protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum
an organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell
rough ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes
smooth ER
ER that has no ribosomes
golgi bodies
the organelles in which proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
Leucoplasts
organelles that store starches or oils