P. 5 Study Guide

What is radioactivity?
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Terms in this set (40)
What is radiation?the transfer of energy through space or matter by waves or rays.What is nuclear decay?the process by which the nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.What are three major types of Nuclear Decay?1. Alpha 2. Beta- electron emission, electron capture, positron emission 3. Gamma decayWhat are gamma rays?electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies.What is half-life?the time required for 1/2 of the radioisotopes nuclei to decay.What is geiger counter? And how is it used?an instrument used to detect and measure radiation.What is transmutation?conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another.What is a beta particle?an electron with a negative or positive charge.How many protons and neutrons does an alpha particle have?two of each.What is the similarities between gamma decay and alpha decay?G: the nucleus releases gamma rays from nuclei A: a nucleus that releases an alpha particle.What is nuclear fusion?the joining of two light atomic nuclei to form a single heavier nucleus.What is nuclear fission?the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei.What is the difference between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission?fusion is the coming together of two or more atoms and fission is the opposite the splitting of two or more atoms.What is nuclear chain reaction?the continuous series of nuclear fission reactions.What is a nuclear reactor?a device where nuclear fission is used to generate electricity.What is a meltdown?what occurs when the fuel in a reactor melts and radiation leaks out of the reactor.What are the dangers of a meltdown?they can release radiation into the air and cause explosions.What does the process of nuclear fusion require?a lot of heat and pressure.How does nuclear fusion effect us on earth?the sun produces rays that cause sunburns and skin cancer.Where does nuclear fission occur?it occurs in atoms with high atomic numbers.Name two ways that nuclear energy can benefit us.1. medicine 2. electrical energyWhat are two ways radiation can be used to help us?1. destroy tumors and cancer tissue 2. kill bacteriaWhat can radiation be harmful to?living tissueWhat can isotopes be used to do?they can be used to help diagnose health problems.What does irradiation do?it kills bacteria in foods through exposure to radiation.Where is using radiation to kill bacteria common?Japan, China, and many other European countries.What are tracers?radioactive isotopes whose pathways can be traced through the body.What is carbon dating used to do?it is used to determine the age of things of organic origin by measuring the radioactivity of the carbon-14 content.Where do plants get their carbon from?they get is from the carbon dioxide in the air.Why is nuclear energy a clean energy source?because it doesn't burn fuel, pollute the air, or cause acid rain like fossil fuels do.