World History 3301 - Final Study Guide

Industrial Revolution started in______
a) Germany
b) Great Britain
c) France
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India Developed a_________democracy a) Dictatorship b) Multi-party c) Single-partyb) Multi-partySingapore developed an________economy a) Export-oriented b) Import-oriented c) all of abovea) Export-orientedShah Mohammed Pahlavi Reza was the leader of________ a) Iraq b) Iran c) Turkeyb) IranMuslim League represented the_____ a) Hindus b) Muslims c) None of abovea) HindusVasco de Gama reached India in____ a) 1498 b) 1500 c) 1600a) 1498Safavid Empire was located in_____ a) Japan b) Persia c) Indiab) PersiaZeng He's voyages were sponsored by the a) Qing Dynasty b) Ming Dynasty c) Song Dynastyb) Ming Dynasty__________followed a policy of matrimonial alliance a) Babur b) Timur c) Akbarc) AkbarWorking Class:They worked in harsh conditions. No rights, No insurance, worked for long hours and couldn't vote.British Aristocracy:Rich landowners, the aristocracy declined when agriculture declined. Middle class was rising with the Industrial Revolution and they wanted a democratic society.Robert Owen:He urged the creation of small communities that would treat workers well. He was able to give workers 8-10 hours of work, better pay, education and sometimes insurance.1. How did Byzantium and Western Europe Interact with each other and with the larger world of the third wave era? (chapter 10 - worlds of Christendom)- Byzantium and western Europe interacted frequently in the 1500s. The Byzantine emperor Justinian succeeded in conquering parts of Western Europe in his effort to rebuild the Roman Empire. - They were both Christians, which led to frequent interactions, disputes and ultimately a split between the two societies. - The revival of western Europe after 1000 C.E brought a closer relationship with Byzantium. - In terms of the wider world, Byzantium and Western Europe were both part of the Eurasian long distance trade network. - Both had a profound impact on Eastern Europe, especially through their promotion of rival versions of the Christian faith.3. What were the gains humankind made from industrial revolution? what did it lose?- There were many gains for human kind during the Industrial revolution, such as economic innovations and technological advancements like the cotton mill, factories assembly lines, and the steam engine. - These types of gains caused a dramatic increase in production of goods. Which created an increase in commercialism. - At this time, the rise of big corporations occurred due to tax breaks and land grants given by the government which resulted in extensive railroads and steamships that made travel/transportation of goods possible and cheaper. - Also an increase in social movement by workers who were demanding equal rights to vote. - Additional major gains of the Industrial revolution were a number of medical discoveries and new medicines such as quinine that cured malaria. - Human kind also experienced losses during the Industrial revolution which included the replacement of natural resources wind, water, and wood with oil, coal and natural gas. - Decline of agriculture was from lack of effort to grow food crops and it was this decline that made workers move to cities in search of jobs. - When they moved they found cities segregated and experience poor working conditions. -There was an increase in social inequality by the working class for example, women were paid less than men. - China/Indian became markets for finished products from Europe/US. US Big corporations dominated the economies of Latin American Nations2. What enabled Europeans to establish huge empires away from home? How did Europeans change the social, political, and economic fabric of the land?• Europeans were much closer to the Americas than were their potential Asian competitors. They were powerfully motivated after 1200 to gain access to the world of Eurasian commerce. • Groups within European society—including competing monarchs, merchants, impoverished nobles and commoners, Christian missionaries, and persecuted minorities—all had strong, if different, motivations for participating in empire building. • European states and trading companies enabled the effective mobilization of both human and material resources. - The Asians were highly competitive with the Europeans, but the Europeans had the upper hand due to distance. • European seafaring technology, built on Chinese and Islamic precedents, allowed Europeans to cross the Atlantic with growing ease. • The disease in the Americas, they had certain immunities which benefited them during expansion. -4. How do you think the World Wars, Great Depression, Fascism, and Holocaust contributed to the rise of the United States as a Global Power?- The Rise the United States as a Global Power happened because of their contribution in WWI, WWII, Great Depression, Fascism, and Holocaust. - WWI devastated Europe's Economy and then became very independent for U.S supplies and technology. - U.S also became the major creditor of the European Countries during the war and loaned them money; showed strong leadership and a united workforce that employed women to continue their advancements in technology, financial strength, and military force. - The United States also used the atomic bomb to destroy the Japanese economy and their society which made other countries fear the united states power. - The fact that the US got involved change the course of WWII. In 1919, the League of Nations was formed to keep the peace but failed to prevent WWII. Then Europe, after WWII lost territories and the rise of U.S and the capitalist power challenged the socialism of soviet union.5. What was the global significance of the cold war? What impact did communism have on the world?- The Cold War was a significant event in history because it was an ideological warfare between Communism and Capitalism which had a global significance. - Need of production of arms which both powers seeked to create a market for weapons of mass disruption. This led to the United States wanting to stop the spread of communism only after China and USSA had joined together becoming allies. - The US gave more power to military leaders and used third world countries to fight for them. The impact due to communism on the world would be that NATO and the Warsaw Pact were created as a treaty. - Also the united states created CIA to help fight communism though man times the CIA tortured and killed people to get info from the people - The invasion of North Korea to South Korea which led to the division of the North Peninsula. Aside these impacts the introduction to women equality came to play in several regions. - It gave full legal rights to women because more workers were in demand at the time. We also start to see the given government ownership of private property, such as ownership of land industries and infrastructures - Chinese communists began to seek support from the peasants - Communism played a critical role in global politics during the 20th century.6. How did the colonial experience and the nationalist agenda shape the agenda for the developing countries?- An increase of production in order to raise the living standards for which helped in economic development in different parts of the Global South. - Having economic development poverty was no longer be tolerated, they had hope to improve in material conditions. The process to succeed economically was not easy with the fact that society was divided by religion, class, ethnic, group and gender. - Many of the ex-colonists came with low literacy, and with a weak private economy. - Transportations were oriented to export rather than national integration - China was successful by launching a major industrialization and a land reform under the communist party. Cuba provided basic free healthcare for its whole population - In Turkey, India, South Korea, and parts of Africa, the state provided licenses, loans and subsides. The states replaced being independent to being more dependence in order to be successful in economic growth.8. What was the impact of the European rule on Congo?- Congo was controlled and ruled by Leopold II. With him in control he ruled based on violence and coercion. He used a system that revolves around fear. - Congo was supposed to be a free-state, but with Leopold II it was held as a prison state. - People lived life in fear, because of the brutality of their punishments and the extremities of torture. Ex: Many would have their hand cut off as a form of punishment when productivity was low or not met to standards. - By punishing Men/Women they would cut off their breasts - If any type of damage was done to the productivity of rubber which was used for bikes, cars tires etc. you could be killed and even your family was affected. - The impact of the colonial rule was that some countries such as the African Nations created a conference to investigate their concerns as to why they could not have access to trade and resources. - The missionaries critical role was to reveal the brutalities done in Congo leading to sending the king to court. - The missionaries also brought the start of education (western education) to the colonies . - In India, people were seen as barbaric. The Europeans educated women according to their ways leaving the Indian men feeling like their culture was being taken away. - In India, it also changed the Agrarian system which did not benefit small land owners. In China, it led to the opium wars because China was trying to keep from Opium being sold which led to 1% of the population becoming addicted. - Overall, Europe had economic control over all colonies.7. What common patterns did you notice across the societies of the 15th century?* The motivation to explore for the European elites and monarchs who had wanted overseas expansion, revenue from taxing overseas trade or resources, commodities, and the widespread conversion of Christianity through missionaries that traveled on the voyages. Ex: Columbus who was sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella from Spain that took him to the Americas, Vasco de Gama who was sponsored by the King of Portugal that made him the 1st European to reach India. Henry the Navigator who sponsored many voyages that made him one of the first to conduct overseas explorations along west coast of Africa. - The position women in societies. In the Eastern Empires such as European, Islamic, and Chinese societies; women were considered inferior to men and had little to no power. - In socieities such as Aztec and Incas; women were more respected and experienced '' gender parallelism ''. The men and women operated on separate but equivalent spheres. Ex: In the Aztec society, brooms/weaving spindles were ritualized as weapons. In the Inca Society; the domestic concerns of women child-birth, cooking, wearing, cleaning were not regarded as inferior to the activities that men took part. - The presence of centralized governments with kings - Aztec society - had a king who lead over the conquest of other groups and required tribute. - Inca - also had a king, but also had a more elaborate administration with governors and hierarchical units who were lead by local officials. - In European, Chinese and Islamic societies there were centralized rulers with great authority such as Queen Isabella/ King Ferdinand of Spain, Portugal King Manuel I, or Chinese Emperor Hongzi of the Ming Dynasty.