PdBio 220 - Cartilage and Bone Tissue
Terms in this set (86)
What is Hyaline Cartilage?
Normal, "base model" cartilage"
What characterizes Hyaline Cartilage?
It is flexible but resilient
Where is Hyaline Cartilage located?
Larynx, trachea, bronchi, cstal cartilage, nose, articular cartilage, epiphyseal plate, and fetal skeleton
What is the epiphyseal plate?
It is a piece of cartilage at the end of each long bone in children and adolescents
What is Fibrocartilage?
A shock absorbing cartilage found in area that require shock absorption
What characterizes fibrocartilage?
It contains thick collagen fibers
Where is fibrocartilage found?
Intervertebral discs, menisci of the knee, and the pubic symphysis
What is Elastic Cartilage?
What characterizes elastic cartilage?
Contains elastic fibers
Where is elastic cartilage found?
Epiglottis and auricle of the ear
What is a chondroblast?
Cells that produce the cartilage matrix
Where are chondroblasts found?
At the edge of the cartilage matrix
What is a chondrocyte?
Mature cartilage cells that reside in lacunae
What is the extracellular matrix of cartilage?
Protein fibers embedded in a gel-like substance
What is the perichondrium?
The dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage matrix
What are 3 main characteristics of cartilage?
Semirigid, flexible/resilient, and Avascular
How does cartilage receive nutrients?
What are 3 main functions of cartilage?
to support soft tissues, to line surfaces of joints, and to provide a model for endochondral bone formation
What is the endochondral bone?
The skeleton of babies/children that will eventually turn into real bone
What is the name of the tissue that makes up bones? (general)
Osseus connective tissue
What are bone cells called?
What is the extracellular matrix of bone made out of?
Osteoid (collagen) and calcium phosphate
What are the 4 main functions of bone?
Support/Protect, Movement, Hemopoiesis, Storage of Minerals/Energy
What is Hemopoiesis?
Red bone marrow creation
What two things does bone usually store?
Calcium phosphate and Yellow Bone Marrow (Adipose)
What bones are considered long?
Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, metacarpals/metatarsals, phalanges
What bones are considered Short?
Carpals, Tarsals, Sesamoid Bones (patella)
What bones are considered flat?
Skull, Scapulae, sternum, Ribs
What bones are considered irregular?
Vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, os coxa, ethmoid, and sphenoid
What are the two bone tissue types?
Compact and spongy bone
What is the name of the head/tail of a long bone?
What is the name of the part of the bone that connects each end?
The Diaphysis (Shaft)
What is the Metaphysis?
The part that connects the shaft and the head/tail
What is Articular Cartilage?
Avascular, softer cartilage that sits on the ends of bon
What is the medullary cavity?
Cavity that contains yellow marrow in adults
What fills the medullary cavity in children?
What is Endosteum?
The layer of cells that line the spongy bone and medullary cavity
What is the Periosteum?
What dense irregular connective tissue on the outer covering of the bone
What are perforating fibers?
Fibers that insert into the periosteum and make it very hard to break
What are nutrient foramina?
Foramina that allow for blood vessels to enter the bone
TRUE or FALSE: Bones are Innervated?
What are Osteoprogenitor Cells?
Bone stem cells
What is a precursor to Osteoblasts?
What are Osteoblasts?
Cells that build bone by secreting osteoid
What are osteocytes?
Mature bone cells that maintain bone matrix
What are Osteoclasts?
Cells that consume bone
What is the name of the process by which osteoclasts consume bone?
What is the name of the area that has been resorbed by an Osteoclast?
A resorption Lacuna
TRUE or FALSE: Osteoclasts are fused bone marrow cells
What is another name for compact bone?
What is another name for Spongy Bone?
What lines spongy bone?
TRUE or FALSE: Spongy bone is often filled with red bone marrow?
What is an Osteon?
What makes up cortical bone
What is the central canal of an osteon?
A canal by which the blood vessels and nerves run through
What are Lamellae?
The rings of an osteon
Where are osteocytes located in an osteon?
In between lamellae
What are Lacunae?
Little caves that osetocytes stay in
What are Canaliculi?
Small canals that the osteocytes use to get nutrients
What are perforating canals?
Canals that perforating fibers use to run through
What is another name for an osteon?
What is another name for the central canal of an osteon?
What are Trabeculae?
Criss-crossing bars and plates of spongy bone
What are parallel lamellae?
Rings of spongy bone that are parallel with one another
What is Intramembranous Ossification?
Bone growth within a membrane
What bones are formed by intramembranous Ossification?
Flat Bones of the skull, some facial bones, mandible, and clavicle
What are the four general steps of Intramembranous Ossification?
1. Ossification centers form near regions of mesenchyme. 2. Osteoid undergoes calcification. 3. Woven bone and periosteum form. 4. Lamella bone replaces woven bone.
What is Endochondral Ossification?
Bone growth within cartilage that results in the formation of most bones and turns fetal framework of hyaline cartilage into bone
What are the basic steps to Endochondral Ossification?
1.Fetal Hyaline cartilage develops. 2. Cartilage calcifies and periostal bone forms. 3. Primary ossification center forms. 4. Secondary ossification center forms. 5. Bone replaces cartilage except the articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates. 6. Epiphyseal plates ossify and form epiphyseal lines.
Where does Interstitial growth occur?
At the epiphyseal plates
What is influenced by interstitial growth?
What is influenced by Appositional growth?
Where does Appositional growth occur?
The periosteum and endosteum
What is a simple fracture?
Bone that doesn't pierce the skin
What is an open/compound fracture?
When the bone pierces the skin
What is a stress fracture?
A thin break from repetitive loads
What is a Pathologic Fracture?
A disease that weakens bones
What are the four steps to fracture repair?
1. Fracture Hematoms forms. 2. Fibrocartilage callus forms. 3. Hard callus forms. 4. Bone is remodeled.
What is osteomalacia?
A disease that causes soft bones and bowed legs
What is rickets?
What causes Osteomalacia?
Vit. D deficiency and calcium deficiency
What is Osteoporosis?
Excessive bone resorption
What causes osteoporosis?
Age and post-menopausal factors
What is Osteitis Deformans?
Excessive osteoclast and osteoblast function causing unstable and immature bone
What is Paget's Disease?
Where is Osteitis Deformans most common?
Os coxa, skull, vertebrae, femur, and tibia