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Terms in this set (63)
• Macrosystem Influences on Parenting
1. Political Ideology 2. Socioeconomic Status 3. Parent Occupation 4. Culture and Religion
accommodation of parenting styles to children's temperaments
• Mesosystem Influences
balanced, democratic, (high responsiveness and high demandingness)
parent is the boss, low responsiveness and high demandingness
child is the boss high responsiveness and low demandingness
Maltreatment that includes physical abuse,
sexual abuse, and psychological or emotional abuse
Maltreatment involving abandonment, lack of
supervision, improper feeding, lack of adequate medical or dental care, inappropriate dress, uncleanliness
appropriate parenting practoces
developmental appropriateness, guidance, discipline
Utilizes a range of acceptable disciplinary approaches Gives basic care, nurturing, and support Models self-control
neglectful boss is out to lunch permanently low repressiveness and low demandingness
Nonparental Care aka day care
the care given to children by persons other than parents during the parts of the day that parents are absent.
extended day care
efers to care
before or after school hours
o Components of Optimal Quality Care
Smaller size of the overall group Smaller caregiver-to-child ratio Caregivers who have had specialized training in child
development or early childhood education
o Nonparental Child Care and Social Development
Children who have experience in child care programs are more socially competent than those who have not had such
o Nonparental Child Care and Cognitive Development
The intellectual performance of children who attend a quality child care program is higher than that of children from similar backgrounds who do not attend a child care
program or who attend one of poor quality
• Macrosystem Influences on Schools
o School Choice (know the different between charter and magnet schools)
o Diversity and Equity
a public school that offers special educational programs, such as science, music, performing arts, and draws students from different neighborhoods by choice.
a certificate issued by the federal government in the amount the local school district would normally spend on a given child's education at his/her assigned public school, parents can apply toward tuition at a private school
a school authorized and funded by public school district, formed by a group of parents, teachers or community members with a shared educational philosophy
Parent's believe it is their right to control their children's education and to teach moral and values
• Chronosystem Influences on Schools
Adaptations to Social Change
Technology Health and Safety
"behaviors by individuals that intentionally threaten, attempt, or inflict harm on others"
Victim, offender, or witness School shootings
MESOSYSTEM INFLUENCES ON SCHOOL
School-Peer Group Linkages
• The Teacher's Role as a Socializing Agent
Teachers play a major leadership role in helping children learn:
to deal with those in authority. to cooperate with others. to cope with problems. to achieve competence.
• Student Characteristics and Teacher Interaction
1. Gender 2. Culture 3. Socioeconomic status 4. Learning styles 5. Disability 6. Risk and resilience
refers to endangerment or vulnerability to negative developmental outcomes
refers to the ability to withstand and rebound from crisis or persistent challenges
• Macrosystem Influences on Teaching
teaching and learning
outcomes of different classroom contexts
• Mesosystem Influences on Teaching
Educating families to extend student learning at home.
"Readiness to learn"
initiatives Before school, Families help ready children for school
MESOSYSTEM INFLUENCES ON TEACHING
MESOSYSTEM INFLUENCES ON TEACHING
Service-orientated Extensions of the
learning environment Guest speakers Field Trips
Authentic Assessment Evaluation based on real performance, rather than
test performance, showing mastery of a task Example: portfolio of a child's writing
Tests in which an individual is compared to a norm on scientifically selected items (Paper and pencil tests)
Test scores only should not be used to asses a
mphasis is on the learner, goal of expanding an individuals knowledge
emphasis on the teacher, goal of logically presenting new knowledge to the student
cooperative goal structures
together to accomplish shared goals. (learner-directed)
competitive goal structures
against each other to achieve goals that only a few students can obtain. (teacher-directed)
individualized goal structures
one student's achievement of the goal is unrelated to other
students' achievement of that goal.
• The Peer Group as a Socializing Agent
A child must earn his/her social position within the peer group; this position does not come naturally, as it does in the family
Peer groups are composed of status equals
• Peer Group Socializing Mechanisms
Positive reaction by peers.
extent modeling influences behavior depends upon the
situation, the model, and the observer.
Punishment (rejection and exclusion)
Negative consequence by peers.
Peers "teaching/showing" another peer how to
The Significance of Peers to Human Development
Meets the needs of belonging and
2. Promotes a sense of self and personal identity. (Provides opportunities for comparisons with others, independence
from adults and allows children to learn from doing)
3. Psychological development—emotions. 4. Peer groups utilize
( reinforcement, modeling, punishment, apprenticeship)
Child plays alone and independently
Child watches other children play
Child plays alone, but with toys like those other children are using
Social interaction and communication with little or no organization
Social interaction in a group
refers to the number of people
occupying a certain area of space
refers to the psychological and practical relationships between people and their social, as well as, physical environment.
Psychologically- people need companionship and emotional security which comes from belonging to a social group
Practically/economically- people need to cooperate with others in order to share in the necessities of life- food, shelter and security.
Production, distribution, consumption
(provides it members with the means to make a living)
2. Socialization (instills its norms and values in
3. Social control (means to enforce adherence to community values, group pressure to conform
or formal laws)
4. Social Participation (fulfills the needs for companionship)
5. Mutual support (enables its members to cooperate to accomplish tasks too large or too urgent to be handled by a single person)
The community's influence on
Modeling by adults ◦ Values and norms instilled in children ◦ Enforcement of rules ◦ Serving as a context in which children can "try out" behavior and experience consequence
The Community as a Support System
Community services are necessary to meet the increasing demand of a changing population, the changing nature of the family, and the increasing urbanization of communities.
are financed by taxation and are administered within the legal framework of the local, state, or federal government.
may be financed by donations, membership dues, corporate contributions, consultation fees, investment income, foundation grants, publication sales, or conference fees. Private agencies are usually managed by a board of directors.
are programs that seek to lessen the stresses and strains of life resulting from social and technological changes and to avert problems.
◦ Parks, Recreation, Education
are programs that maintain the health, education, and welfare of the community.
◦ Referrals, Economic assistance, Counseling, Family preservation, Senior citizen
◦ Child health and welfare, Protective , Child care, Foster care, Adoption
are programs that enable or restore people's ability to participate in the community.
◦ Correction, Mental health, Special needs
refers to the stability or mobility of people in a neighborhood as well as to their homogeneity or heterogeneity.
include people of similar backgrounds
neighborhoods- include people of differing
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