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AP Biology Vocabulary - Big Idea #4
Vocabulary to support Big Idea #4. Biological systems interact, and these interactions posses complex properties.
Terms in this set (42)
The part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate molecule attaches (by means of weak chemical bonds); typically, a pocket or groove on the enzyme's surface
Complete digestive tract extending between two openings, the mouth and the anus. Present in most animals.
Molecule that activates or inhibites; molecule will bind to enzyme and cause temporary stabilization of active form or temporary change which inhibits enzyme function.
alveoli (singular alveolus)
Tiny sacs, with walls only a single cell layer thick found at the end of the respiratory bronchiole tree. The site of gas exchange in the respiratory system.
Compounds with an amino group (-NH₂) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end; the monomers that make up a protein. 20 different forms occur as a result of the "R" group.
Smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
Mass of a single atom determine by the number of protons and neutrons possessed.
Number of protons in an atom's nucleus.
The average mass of all the isotopes of an element.
An anatomical cavity or passage; especially: a chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle or ventricles.
Class of organic compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In plant cells, it is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible, whereas the secondary cell wall is stronger and more rigid and is the primary constituent of wood.
Cylindrically shaped organelle composed of 9 triplets of microtubule. Part of the cell centrosome or MTOC.
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
An organic substance serving as a cofactor for an enzyme. Usually a vitamin or mineral and combines with an enzyme, to form an active enzyme system.
Any non-protein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.
Inhibition of an enzyme's ability to catalyze a chemical reaction via a non-reactant molecule that competes with the substrate(s) for access to the active site.
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information of the cell and is capable of self-replication. Found in both nucleus of eukaryotic cells and in the nucleoid in prokaryotes.
Carbohydrates made up of two monosaccharides.
A cellular control mechanism in which an enzyme that catalyzes the production of a particular substance in the cell is inhibited when that substance has accumulated to a certain level.
The basic form of a lipid. Made up of a carboxylic acid and fatty chains that are either saturated or unsaturated.
Structure in platyhelminthes that helps remove metabolic wastes without losing water
Carbohydrate attached to a fat- basic component of the plasma membrane.
An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membraneous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum and synthesize some products, notably non cellulose carbohydrates.
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
"water-loving"; pertaining to polar or charged molecules (or parts of molecules) that are soluble in water
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
An introduced species that spreads widely, and rapidly becomes dominate in a community, interfering with the community's normal functioning.
A chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion.
An atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element.
A species whose impact on its community or ecosystem are much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance.
A pair of organs in the abdominal cavity that filter waste, unused minerals, and water that make up urine.
Membrane-bound vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes involved in intracellular digestion
Excretory organ in insects that empties into the digestive track, removes nitrogenous wastes from hemolymph, functions in osmoregulation. Nitrogenous wastes are excreted in the form of solid uric acid crystals.
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration; uses oxygen to break down organic molecules and synthesize ATP. It is responsible for extracting energy from nutrients.
Glucose, fructose, galactose--simple sugars that are the building blocks of polysaccharides (carbohydrates). Main cellular energy molecule used for respiration.
Excretory tubules of many invertebrates. Notably Annelids. Any tubule specialized for excretion and/or osmoregulation with an external opening
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
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