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78 terms

Micro Quiz 3

Chapter 4
STUDY
PLAY
You have isolated a cell with a peptidoglycan cell wall. What other structure can you safely assume the cell has?
a plasma membrane
You are observing a Gram stain of rectangular-shaped microorganisms that are linked in a chain and stain purple. How would you describe these bacteria using the correct terminology for the cell shape and arrangement?
gram-positive streptobacilli
A Gram stain of a wound reveals purple, spherical-shaped bacteria that divide and remain attached in grapelike clusters. These are referred to as __________.
gram-positive staphylococci
Do gram-negative cell walls contain teichoic acid?
No
What processes uses membrane proteins that act as channels or carriers allowing ions or large molecules to move across the plasma membrane without using energy?
Facilitated Diffusion
Which bacterial structure is necessary for chemotaxis?
Flagella
How many endospores does a bacteria cell make?
One
What packages and secretes proteins within a cell?
The Golgi Complex
What creates a slimy, slippery coating that prevents bacteria from attaching to surfaces?
Glycocalyces
Do animal cells contain cell walls?
No
Spirochetes and spirilla are both spiral-shaped bacteria. However, they differ in that spirochetes have __________ and spirilla do not.
endoflagella
Which type of cell's DNA is not enclosed within a membrane?
Prokaryotes
Which type of cell's DNA is associated with histones?
Eukaryotes
Which type of cell has membrane enclosed organelles?
Eukaryotes
Which type of cell has a cell wall that almost always contains peptidoglycan?
Prokaryotes
Which type of cell divides by binary fission?
Prokaryotes
Which type of cell has a nucleus?
Eukaryotes
Which type of cell has DNA that is made up of multiple chromosomes?
Eukaryotes
Is Bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
Prokaryotes
Is Archae prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
Prokaryotes
Is fungi prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
eukaryotic
Is protozoa prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
eukaryotic
Is algae prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
eukaryotic
Which bacteria shape is spherical?
coccus/cocci
Which bacteria cell shape is rod shaped?
bacillus/bacilli
Which bacteria cell shape is spiral
vibrious
Bacteria cells arranged in pairs are labeled what?
Diplo
Bacteria cells arranged in chains are labeled what?
Strepto
Bacteria cells arranged in clusters are labeled what?
staphlo
What is a Sugar coating that is firmly attached to the cell wall of a bacteria cell?
A capsule
What is a Sugar coating that is loosely attached to the cell wall of a bacteria cell?
Slime layer
How do bacteria cells move?
Flagella
What is the movement of bacteria cells from a stimulus called?
taxis
Taxis in response to chemicals is called what?
Chemotaxis
Taxis in response to sunlight is called what?
phototaxis
Bacteria without flagella are called what?
atrichous
Which type of bacteria cell moves in a corkscrew manner?
spirochetes
What type of cell structure is used by gram negative bacteria cells to adhere to surfaces?
fimbriae
What type of cell structure is used by gram negative bacteria cells to transfer DNA from one cell to another?
Pilli
What is conjugation?
The transfer of genetic information through pilli
What is the major function of the cell wall?
To protect the cell from rupturing when the water pressure inside the cell is greater than that outside the cell
Do gram-positive or gram-negative cell walls have many layers or peptidoglycan?
Gram positive
Which type of cell wall contains teichoic acids, gram positive or negative?
Positive
What makes it possible for teichoic acids to be identified through lab tests?
teichoic acids
Which type of cell wall contains a cell membrane, gram positive or negative?
Gram negative
Which genus of bacteria lack cell walls completely?
Mycoplasm
Which type of bacteria does not react to the gram staining test?
mycobacteria
Which type of bacteria can only be identified with the acid fast test? Why?
mycobacteria, because of its high concentration of mycolic acid
Which part of bacteria cells is most targeted by antimicrobial drugs?
The cell wall
Which enzyme is used to damage the cell walls of many gram positive bacteria?
lysosozyme
Which type of bacteria has atypical cell walls?
mycobacteria
Which type of cell is made up of Gram-negative cell lipopolysaccharides, gram positive or gram negative?
Gram negative
Which type of cell is made up of Gram-negative cell teichoic acids, gram positive or gram negative?
Gram Positive
Do gram positive bacteria have cell membranes?
No
What is the phopholipid bilayer with peripheral and integral proteins that encloses the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell called?
plasma membrane
Do prokaryotes have organelles?
No
The dynamic arrangement of the phospholipids and proteins within the plasma membrane is referred to as the ______.
fluid mosaic model
Where within a cell is the bacteria chromosome found?
The nucleiod
What are the small circular extrachromosomal genetic elements of bacteria called?
plasmids
What controls protein synthesis within a cell? Where is it found?
Ribosomes, cytoplasm
What are inclusions?
Specific storage areas of a cell
What are are highly resistant bodies formed by certain gram-positive bacteria called?
Endospores
Which genus of bacteria can cause gangrene, tetanus, botulism, and food poisoning?
Clostridum
Which genus of bacteria can cause anthrax?
Bacillus
What is passive diffusion?
When molecules are allowed to pass through a cell's membrane freely
Which type of molecules cannot undergo passive diffusion?
Charged and large molecules
What type of molecules tend to get stuck within a cell's membrane? Why?
Hydrophobic molecules, because the cell membrane is hydrophobic
Which type of transport across the cytoplasmic membrane requires a transport protein?
Active transport
Which type of transport across the cytoplasmic membrane requires the use of ATP?
Active transport
Which type of cytoplasmic membrane protein can act as enzymes or receptors?
Peripheral
The Phospholipid tail located within the cytoplasmic membrane is ______?
Hydrophobic
Are peripheral proteins used for the transport of molecules?
No
Diffusion is an example of which type of molecule transport?
Passive Transport
Osmosis is an example of which type of molecule transport?
Passive Transport
What is diffusion?
The movement of a molecule from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
What type of molecules can undergo diffusion?
Dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, small alcohols, and small fatty acids
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water
Which type of cell has a cell membrane, gram positive or gram negative?
Gram negative