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Child Development - Chapter 11
Terms in this set (17)
Physical Growth during Middle Childhood
Slow but steady; Grow 2 to 3 inches per year; Not as highly noticeable; This is the ONLY time during the life span when girls are, on average, TALLER than boys; By AGE 11 the average girl is 4'10" and the average boy is 4'9.5";
Physical Growth, continued
Variations of half a foot in children the same age are NOT uncommon; Height and weight variations can be affected by: genetics, poor nutrition, and racial or ethnic background;
Linked to positive personality traits and cognitive performance; Linked to positive growth;
Body weight that is more than 20% above the average for a person of a given height and weight; 10% of all children are obese; Has risen 54 percent since the '60's; Some parenting behaviors may produce children who lack internal controls to regulate their own food intake; Correlation between TV viewing and obesity is STRONG;
Health During Middle Childhood
Period of great health for most children; Colds are most serious "illness"; 90% of children likely to have 1 serious condition over middle childhood; about 1 in 9 has a chronic condition, like Asthma;
More than 7% of children under 18 suffer; Characterized by wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath; Asthma attacks triggered by: respiratory infections, irritants, stress, exercise; Occurrences almost doubled over last decade because of increasing air pollution;
Show sudden loss of interest; Surprisingly high; Between 2 and 5% of school age children suffer; 1% so depressed that they express suicidal thoughts; Can be treated effectively;
8 to 9% of children suffer; Most things that would not bother others disturb them;
Gross/Fine Motor Skills
Develop substantially over middle childhood; Gross muscle coordination; Fine motor skills advance because of increases in amount of myelin;
Gender & Sports
American Academy of Pediatrics says no reason to separate sexes in sports until puberty, when smaller females more susceptible to injury;
Children who perform well physically often more accepted by peers; Perceived as leaders; Tend to not think about girls being physically active, due to culture norms.
Children with Special Needs - Auditory/Visual
Differ in terms of physical attributes or learning abilities; 1 in 1,000 requires special education services relating to visual impairment; Auditory impairment affects 1 to 2% of school age children - loss in infancy is more severe than after age 3.
Children who have little/no exposure to language are unable to understand/produce language themselves, and unable to understand abstract thinking;
Speech that deviates so much from speech of others that it calls attention to itself; 3 to 5% of school age children have impairments; Stuttering is most common impairment.
Some 2.3 Million children in U.S. labeled; Dyslexia is misinterpretation of letters during reading/writing, difficulty sounding out letters, confusion between left and right, difficulties in spelling; Cause of dyslexia unknown but attributed to form of brain dysfunction;
Learning disability; 3 to 5% of school age children are estimated to have it;
Public Law 94-142
Education for all Handicapped Children; Children with Special Needs be put in the Least Restrictive Environment; Mainstreaming - exceptional children are integrated to the extent possible in the traditional classroom; Special needs children must learn to function in normal classroom;
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