58 terms

Unit 2 (Public, Political, and Parties)

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Electorate
All the people entitled to vote in elections
Conservative
A person who is opposed to change, tends to be more religious, prefers a smaller government, and the Republican party. They believe that the people themselves should solve their own rather than the government.
Liberal
A person who believes in government involvement in corporations and has a preference to change, political experiment, and the advancement of social justice and civil rights.
Poll Tax
The requirement for a person to pay before voting. It was used to discourage the poor and the minorities from voting.
Public Opinion
The beliefs, preferences, and attitudes, of the public, about an issue that involves the government or society.
15th Amendment
Ratified in 1869, this legislation lets any man vote regardless of race.
19th Amendment
Ratified in 1920, this legislation granted women the right to vote.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The legislation that got rid of literacy tests, the grandfather clause, and any other methods previously used that discouraged minorities from voting.
26th Amendment
Ratified in 1971, it granted people of the age, 18 or older to be able to vote in elections.
23rd Amendment
Ratified in 1961, it gave D.C. 3 electors to represent their area in the general election.
Literacy Test
An exam that assesses a person's understanding of a particular language but when they were used in the United States they were tests with many alternatives for the correct answer making it impossible to pass.
Electoral College
A group of people chosen from each state every 4 years who make the formal selection of the US
President.
Bandwagon Effect
A phenomenon that a person is more likely to take on certain beliefs (ideas, fads, and trends) if their peers also have adopted similar beliefs.
Crossover Voting
A behavior in which voters cast ballots for a party with which they are not traditionally affiliated.
Dealignment
When a large portion of the electorate abandons its previous partisan affiliation, without stablishing a new one to replace it.
Demographics
A certain group of people sharing something in common whether it be race, tax bracket, gender, or regional location.
Christian Coalition
A 501c organization advocacy group that includes members of various Christian denominations.
Their agenda includes defunding and rolling back Obamacare, standing with Israel, reducing government spending and debt, and representing Christian values.
Caucus
A local meeting run by party officials, where people can express a presidential preference and choose delegates to higher-level party gatherings.
Primary
An election in which voters cast secret ballots just as in other elections.
Equality of Opportunity
A belief that all people should be treated similarly, without prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
Equality of Results
A political concept that describes a state in which people have approximately the same material wealth or general economic conditions.
Electoral
Of or relating to elections or electors
Exit Polls
A poll taken immediately after voters have exited the voting stations. It asks for whom the voter actually voted.
Frontloading
When states choose an early primary date. It enables the better-funded candidates to advertise and compete is several states simultaneously.
Focus Groups
A form of research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging.
General Election
A final election to choose who will be put in a national political office.
Grandfather Clause
Those whom or their ancestors that have previously voted can continue to vote.
Incumbent
An official currently holding office
Libertarian
A political philosophy that upholds liberty as its principal objective. They seek to maximize freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, and voluntary association.
Majority Win
A decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, more than half the votes.
Margin of Error
An amount that is allowed for in case of miscalculation or change of circumstances. It can review results and then determine the level of accuracy of the experiment.
Midterm Elections
refer to general elections in the United States that are held during the midterm of the president for other political offices such as senator, representatives, and governors.
Motor-Voter Law (1993)
The law expanded voting rights by requiring state governments to offer voter registration opportunities to any eligible person who renews a driver's license or public assistance, and prohibits states from removing registered voters from the roll unless certain criteria are met.
National Convention
A meeting where the goal is to nominate and confirm a candidate for president and vice president, adopt a comprehensive party platform and unify the party.
New Class
A term used by critics of countries that followed the Soviet type of communism to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist Party functionaries.
Orthodox
What is generally or traditionally accepted as right or true
Party Identification
Refers to the political party with which an individual identifies/most supports. Some view party identification as "a form of social identity", in the same way that a person identifies with a religious or ethnic
group.
Party Platform
A list of the values and actions which are supported by a political party/individual candidate, in order to appeal to the general public, to ultimately get support and votes about complicated topics or issues.
Party Realignment
Is when the balance of power between a country's political parties changes greatly. Parties can be created, destroyed, or change their demographics, or values. This happens when change occurs or a major historical event has happened.
Plurality Win
When a candidate wins an election wit less than 50% of the votes.
Political Efficacy
Is the citizens' trust in government and their belief that they can understand and influence political affairs.
Political Elite
The most informed, educated and politically active people who have a strong influence on public officials
Political Ideology
A certain ethical set of ideas of a political party that explains how society should work, and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a social order.
Political Machine
A political organization in which a person/small group who support of a corps of supporters and businesses that receive rewards for their efforts. The machine's power is based on the ability of the workers to get out the vote for their candidates on election day.
Political Party
A group of people who share the same ideologies that come together to try to shape the government to their values.
Populist
A small independent party that lasted from 1892- 1908. It drew support from angry farmers in the West and South and operated on the left-wing of American politics. It was highly critical of capitalism, especially banks and railroads, and allied itself with the labor movement.
Progressive
A philosophy that asserts the advancement in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition.
Proportional Representation
Basing the number of delegates from each state on population. The larger population gets more delegates and vice versa.
Push polls
A technique most commonly employed during political campaigning, in which an individual/organization attempts to influence or alter the view of voters under the disguise of conducting a poll.
Random Sample
A sample of individuals chosen from a larger set and each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance.
Socio-economic Status (SES)
A combined measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
Split-Ticket Voting
An election in which the voter has chosen candidates from different political parties when multiple offices are being decided by a single election.
Straight-Ticket Voting
The practice of voting for every candidate that a political party has on a general election ballot.
Straw Poll
An unofficial vote.
Superdelegates
A delegate to the DNC or RNC that is seated automatically, based on their status as current or former party leader or elected official.
Think Tank
An organization that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
Tracking poll
A weekly tracking poll uses the data from the past week and discards older data.
White Primary
Primary elections held in the Southern states in which only white voters were permitted to participate.