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Terms in this set (42)
A modified form of guanine nucleotide added onto the 5′ end of a pre-mRNA molecule.
alternative RNA splicing
A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns.
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
(1) A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. (2) A discrete structural and functional region of a protein.
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. The E site is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome. (E stands for exit.)
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. The P site holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain. (P stands for peptidyl tRNA.)
A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed.
A mutation occurring when nucleotides are inserted in or deleted from a gene and the number inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the subsequent nucleotides into codons.
The process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs.
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed from the transcript during RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed.
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and can cause a mutation.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA or in the DNA or RNA of a virus.
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
A change in a single nucleotide pair of a gene.
A nucleotide-pair substitution that has no observable effect on the phenotype; for example, within a gene, a mutation that results in a codon that codes for the same amino acid.
A type of point mutation in which one nucleotide in a DNA strand and its partner in the complementary strand are replaced by another pair of nucleotides.
A sequence of 50-250 adenine nucleotides added onto the 3′ end of a pre-mRNA molecule.
A group of several ribosomes attached to, and translating, the same messenger RNA molecule.
A specific nucleotide sequence in the DNA of a gene that binds RNA polymerase, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place.
An RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme, such as an intron that catalyzes its own removal during RNA splicing.
A sequence of about 20 amino acids at or near the leading (amino) end of a polypeptide that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum or other organelles in a eukaryotic cell.
signal-recognition particle (SRP)
A protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from a ribosome and helps direct the ribosome to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by binding to a receptor protein on the ER.
A large complex made up of proteins and RNA molecules that splices RNA by interacting with the ends of an RNA intron, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons.
A DNA sequence in eukaryotic promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.
The DNA strand that provides the pattern, or template, for ordering, by complementary base pairing, the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
In bacteria, a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene and signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule and detach from the DNA.
The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template.
An initial RNA transcript from any gene; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein-coding gene.
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes.
transcription initiation complex
The completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to a promoter.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
An RNA molecule that functions as a translator between nucleic acid and protein languages by carrying specific amino acids to the ribosome, where they recognize the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.
A genetic information system in which a set of three-nucleotide-long words specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
Flexibility in the base-pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5′ end of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3′ end) of a codon.
In eukaryotic cells, transcription cannot begin until
several transcription factors have bound to the promoter.
Which of the following is not true of a codon?
-It may code for the same amino acid as another codon.
-It consists of three nucleotides.
-It never codes for more than one amino acid.
-It extends from one end of a tRNA molecule.
-It is the basic unit of the genetic code.
It extends from one end of a tRNA molecule.
The anticodon of a particular tRNA molecule is
complementary to the corresponding mRNA codon.
Which of the following is not true of RNA processing?
-Exons are cut out before mRNA leaves the nucleus.
-RNA splicing can be catalyzed by spliceosomes.
-A primary transcript is often much longer than the final RNA molecule that leaves the nucleus.
-Nucleotides may be added at both ends of the RNA.
-Ribozymes may function in RNA splicing.
Exons are cut out before mRNA leaves the nucleus.
Which component is not directly involved in translation?
Using Figure 17.5, identify a 59 S39 sequence of nucleotides in the DNA template strand for an mRNA coding for the polypeptide sequence Phe-Pro-Lys.
Which of the following mutations would be most likely to have a harmful effect on an organism?
-a single nucleotide deletion in the middle of an intron
-a single nucleotide deletion near the end of the coding sequence
-a single nucleotide insertion downstream of, and close to, the start of the coding sequence
-a nucleotide-pair substitution
-a deletion of three nucleotides near the middle of a gene
a single nucleotide insertion downstream of, and close to, the start of the coding sequence
If you owned a chocolate Lab and wanted to know its genotype, would you learn anything from a testcross?
What nitrogen base pairs with Cytosine?
Which factor does NOT complicate the task of studying the inheritance of human characteristics?
If the green pea pod allele (G) is dominant to the yellow allele (g), a cross between the two heterozygous plants would be expected to produce
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