Cells 1 & 2
Bio 430 with Professor Rogers
Terms in this set (75)
basic structural and functional unit of living organisms
a fragile barrier, is the outer boundary of the cell
refers to molecules or portions of molecules, that interact with water and charged particles
refers to molecules, or portions of molecules that interact only with non polar molecules
a lipid with one or more covalently attached sugars only found on the outer plasma membrane surface
are firmly inserted in the lipid bilayer all have hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions
are not embedded in the lipid, instead they attach loosely only to integral proteins and are easily removed without disrupting the membrane
is used to describe the fuzzy, sticky , carbohydrate-rich area at the cell surface
fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that project from a free or exposed cell surface increase surface area for absorption
a series of integral protein molecules. Tight junctions help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells
binding bodies. Cell junction composed of thickened plasma membranes joined by filaments
is a communicating junction between the adjacent cells. formed by transmembrane proteins called connexons
fluid within the cell
a membrane that allows certain substances to pas while restricting the moment of other; also called differentially permeable glands
the unassisted transport across a plasma membrane of a lipid- soluble or very small particle
passive transport process used by certain molecules glucose and there simple sugars too large to pass through plasma membrane pores. Involves movement through channels or movement facilitated by a membrane carrier
diffusion of a solvent through a membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one
based solely on its total solute concentration. the number of solute particles present in 1 liter of a solution
a solution with a concentration of non penetrating solutes equal to that found in the reference cell
excessive, a bove normal, tone or tension. cells immersed in hypertonic solutions lose water and shrink
solutions that are more dilute, below normal tone or tension
passage of a solvent and dissolved substances through a membrane or filter
primary active transport
a type of active transport which the energy needed to drive the transport process is provided directly by hydrolysis or ATP , causes the protein to change its shape in such a manner that it pumps the bound solute across the membrane
primary active transport system that simultaneously drives Na+ out of the cell against a steep gradient and pumps K+ back in
eject substances from the cell interior into the extracellular fluid
those which the cell ingest small patches of the plasma membrane and moves substances from the cell exterior to the cell interior
type of endocytosis in which the cell engulfs some relatively large or solid material, such as a clump of bacteria, cell debris or inanimate particles
engulf of the extracellular fluid by cells
allows cells to concentrate martial that is present only in very small amount in the extracellular fluid
where LDL (low density lipoprotein) receptors are absent of abnormal, the uptake of cholesterol by tissue cells is blocked, and the total concentration of cholesterol in the blood is enormously elevated. Affected individuals develop atherosclerosis at an early age , heart attacks begin in the third an fourth decade, ad most die by age 60.
voltage across the plasma membrane
cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs)
are found on almost every cell in the body. they work in embryonic development and wound repair and in immunity
intracellular molecule generated by a binding of a chemical to a plasma membrane receptor; mediates intracellular responses to the chemical messenger
substances contributing to body mass that are found outside of the cells
cellular material between the plasma membrane and the nuclear elements are suspended.
viscous semitransparent fluid in which the other cytoplasmic elements are suspended
chemical substances that may or may not be present, depending on cell type
they are power plants of a cell, providing most of its ATP supply
make soluble protease that functions in the cytosol , as well as those imported into mitochondria and some other organelles
membrane bound ribosome
synthesize proteins destines either for incorporation into cell membranes or for export from the cell
rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER)
its ribosome manufacture all proteins secreted from cells. is particularly abundant and well developed in most secretory cells, also the" cell's membrane factory" because integral proteins and phospholipids that form part of all cellular membranes are manufactured there.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER)
they catalyze reactions involved lipid metabolism , cholesterol synthesis, absorption, detoxification of drugs, certain pesticide, breakdown store glycogen to form free glucose. skeletal and cardiac muscle cells have an elaborate smooth ER which plays in important role in calcium ion storage and release during muscle contraction
is principal "traffic director" for cellular proteins . its major function is to modify,concentrate, and package the proteins and lips made at the rough ER
Tay Sach's disease
the lysosomes lack an enzyme needed that breakdown a glycolipid abundant in nerve cell membranes. as a result, the nerve cell lysosomes swell with the undigested lipids which interfere with nervous system functioning
system or organelles that work together mainly
1) to produce , store and export biological molecules
2) to degrade potentially harmful substances
spherical membranous organelles containing activated digestive enzymes. They can digest almost all kinds of biological molecules.
are membranous sacs containing a variety of powerful enzymes the most important of which are oxidases and catalyses. use molecular oxygen to detoxify harmful or toxic substances , such as free radicals
highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scramble the structure of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
cell skeleton. an elaborate series of rods running through the cytosol , supporting cellar structures and providing the machinery to generate various cell movements.
one of the three types of rods in the cytoskeleton of a cell, hollow tubes made of spherical protein that determine the cell shape as well as the distribution of cellular organelles.
tiny protein machines and they change their shapes and move substances along the microtubule
involved in cell motility or changes in cell shape (actin)
region near the nucleus which contains paired organelles called centrioles
cells control center, contains genetic material, clusters of nerve cell bodies in the CNS
the dole membrane barrier of a cell nucleus (is permeable)
two layers of the nuclear envelope interconnected
is a structure within the nucleus of a cell; and composed of protein and RNA
structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factors
provide a physical means for packing the very long DNA molecules i a compact way, but also play an important role in gene regulation
bar like bodies of highly coiled chromatin, visible during cel division
cell life cycle
is the series of changes a cell goes through from the time its is formed until it reproduces
period from cell formation to cell division, it also carries out all its routine activities and is "resting" only from dividing.
process that occurs before cell division , ensures that all daughter cells have identical genes.
works only in one direction. encounters the sequence of bases GCT on the template stand, it assembles the bases CGA to bind to it.
formed from the duplication of the chromosome during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosome during the late stages of cell division
is the series of events that parcel out of replicated DNA of the mother cell to two daughter cells. nuclear division. consisting of prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
division of the cytoplasm begins during late anaphase and it competed after mitosis ends
one of the biological units of heredity located in chromatins. transmits hereditary information
one of two major steps in the transfer of generic code information from a DNA base sequence to the complementary base sequence of an mRNA molecule
pulls apart the stands of the DNA double helix so that transcription can begin at the start point in the promoter.
long nucleotide strands that reflect the exact nucleotide sequences of the genetically active DNA and carry the message of the latter.
one of the major steps in the transfer of generic code information, in which the information carried by mRNA is decoded and used to assemble polypeptides.
short-chain RNA molecules that transfer amino acids to the ribosome
three-base sequence on a messenger RNA molecule that provides the genetic information used in protein synthesis ; code for a given amino acid
a change in DNA base sequence that may lean to incorporation of incorrect amino acids in particular position in the resulting proteins;the affected protein may remain unimpaired or may function abnormally or not at all. leading to disease.