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Unit 2 600BC to 600CE - 15%
Terms in this set (66)
Ancient Persian Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) which was composed of many smaller kingdoms. The realm was divided into twenty-three districts whose administration and taxation was managed by satraps, or subordinate local rulers.
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great.
The peninsula between the Mediterranean and the Black Seas that is now occupied by most of Turkey; also called Asia Minor
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Greek philosopher (384-322 BCE). A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing.
Powerful city-state in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
Religion founded in the sixth century BCE by Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha) and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through elimination of greed, craving, and desire (Four Noble Truths); knowledge, especially self-knowledge; complete honesty; proper conduct; and never hurting another person or animal (Eightfold Path). Buddhism splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict social hierarchy maintained by Hinduism.
A system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from cycle of rebirth. Traditionally Hindu society was divided into various categories; there are four main varnas (colors); or classes: Brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya, and shudra; each class contains certain subgroups (jati), resulting in more than three thousand categories. Caste originated with the Aryan invasion of Dravidian India, and provided the social cohesion when political stability was lacking.
Monotheistic religion which holds Jesus Christ as the messiah who freed followers from Roman rule and fulfilled the prophesy of the Jewish scriptures. Based on the Jewish Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior and the path to salvation (heaven).
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct, love for humanity, ancestor worship, and proper relationships (especially reverence for parents).
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople, converted to Christianity, and made Christianity a favored religion. Convened the Council of Nicea, where Christian doctrine was codified.
The type of money used by a group or a nation
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 BCE, he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples, he employed Persians and Medes in his administration and respected the institutions and beliefs of subject peoples. After conquering Babylon he allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem.
Chinese philosophy from the 4th century BCE based on the teachings of Laozi; taught that people should follow the path (Dao) and turn to nature and give up their worldly concerns. Argues that all human action leads to destruction, so humans should do as little as possible (Wuwei).
The third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire (521-486 BCE). He ruled the empire at its peak. He organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing satraps to govern it. He organized a new uniform money system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire. He also worked on construction projects throughout the empire. Continued the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire, invading the Eastern Mediterranean.
A system of government in which all 'citizens' (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. From the Greek words 'demos' (people) and 'cratos' (power).
The caste position and career determined by a person's birth; Hindu culture required that one accept one's social position and perform occupation to the best of one's ability in order to have a better situation in the next life. In Buddhism it refers to the natural law of the universe.
the dispersion or spreading of a group of people that was originally in one location.
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering: right views, right thought, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right endeavor, right awareness, and right contemplation. Seen as the "middle way" in Buddhism.
Belief in respect shown by children for their parents and elders. From the Latin 'filius' (son) and 'pietus' (dutiful conduct).
Four Noble Truths
The central teachings of Buddhism; to live is to suffer; suffering is caused by desire; the cessation of suffering can be achieved; the solution is the Noble Eightfold Path.
India's most important river, flows across northern India into Bangladesh. This river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
The first established civilization on the European mainland beginning around 1100 B.C. Located in the eastern Mediterranean. Established the Olympic Games in 776 B.C. Created the first European literature such as The Illiad and The Odyssey. Made up of city-states (polis) until the establishment of the Macedonian Empire under Philip II. Developed logic, theater, mathematics, and philosophy.
(320-550 CE). Powerful northern Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, in the Ganges Valley. Founded by Chandra Gupta. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture.
An imperial dynasty that ruled China from 206 BCE to 221 CE and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy. Overthrew the Qin, established centralized government, civil service system, Silk Road. Predominantly Confucian and Legalist, with minority Daoist and Buddhist.
World's highest mountain range that divides China from India.
A general term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since at least 2000 BCE. The main religion of India, a combination of Dravidian and Aryan concepts. Hinduism's goal is to reach spiritual purity and union with the great world spirit; its important concepts include dharma, karma, and samsara. It spread along the trade routes to Southeast Asia.
A worldview and a moral philosophy that considers humans to be of primary importance. It is a perspective common to a wide range of ethical stances that attaches importance to human dignity, concerns, and capabilities, particularly rationality. A major component of the Classical Greco-Roman philosophy and the Italian Renaissance.
Religion founded in India in the sixth century BC, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore shouldn't be harmed (ahisma - non-violence). Mahavira founded this religion.
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Torah (Old Testament) and Talmud.
Roman general, statesman, and historian who invaded Britain (55 BCE), crushed the army of his political enemy Pompey (48 BCE), pursued other enemies to Egypt, where he installed Cleopatra as queen (47 BCE), returned to Rome, and was given a mandate by the people to rule as dictator for life (45 BCE). On March 15 of 44 BCE he was murdered by a group of republicans led by Cassius and Brutus, who feared he intended to establish a monarchy ruled by himself.
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes.
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Made up of warring city-states. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar. Polytheistic religion marked by self and human sacrifice.
Based around demands of the Mayan religious hierarchy to honor the heavenly deities. It had eighteen months of twenty days each and a five-day period for religious festivals. Used twenty-based mathematics, pictographic and glyphic symbols. Combined a solar and lunar calendar. Was based on the Olmec calendar, and its use continued through the Aztecs.
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. (Common in Buddhism and Christianity)
Arid steppes north of China that was made up of nomadic clans.
In Buddhism and Hinduism, the release from pain and suffering of reincarnation.
A system of government in which a small group holds power.
The head of the family or household in Roman law (always male) and the only member to have full legal rights. This person had absolute power over his family, which extended to life and death.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Empire in southwest Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BCE and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE.
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's invasion that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus.
(430-347 BCE) Greek philosopher. Was a disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection. He proposed ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophers ruled (philosopher-kings).
A city-state in ancient Greece.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Slaves did nearly all the work, not just the menial but also such important tasks as operating stores, delivering mail, practicing medicine, and tutoring the children of the wealthy. This lead to rampant unemployment of the plebeian class and a lack of innovation in agriculture where slave labor dominated. No other classical era civilization utilized slavery to such a widespread degree.
The military dictatorship that, from 27 BCE to 476 CE, controlled all the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. Was divided in 395 CE into Western and Eastern halves. Was notable for its legal system, road network, integration of disparate regions into a cohesive political and economic network, and allowance for multiple cultures. Collapsed in 476 due to a variety of internal failures and foreign invasions.
An Indo-European language, in use since c. 1200 BCE as the religious and classical literary language of India.
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community.
Hindu god called the Destroyer. Shiva is the third member of the triad that includes Brahma the Creator and Vishnu the Preserver.
the Indian prince turned ascetic (circa 566-486 BCE) who founded Buddhism; also known as the Buddha
A valuable cloth, originally made only in China from threads spun by caterpillars called silkworms. During the Classical period, only China knew the process for silk production, which led to the establishment of the Silk Road creating multiple trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa. Extending 4,000 miles.
Classical land trade routes stretching from China to the Mediterranean, which allowed for the exchange of goods and ideas from China to the Roman Empire.
Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. Was Plato's teacher. Taught his students to question everything, and developed a method of inquiry based on continual questioning. He made enemies in government and was condemned to death for "corrupting the youth" of Athens.
An ancient city- state whose remains are located outside of Mexico City. First began in the first century, when the inhabitants of the village located on the site began to plan and build a huge city. At its peak in the 700s, had between 150,000 and 200,000 people living there, making it one of the largest cities in existence at the time. Had more than 20 pyramids consecrated to the gods, but the largest was the Pyramid of the Sun. It became the center of a thriving trade network that extended far into Central America. There is no evidence that it conquered its neighbors or tried to create an empire, however, evidence of the art styles and religious beliefs from the city have been found throughout Mesoamerica. After centuries of growth, the city began a sudden and abrupt decline, which is believed to have been caused by an invasion from outside forces or a fight among the city's nobility. It was abandoned by 750.
The sacred book of the Jewish people (the first 5 books of the Old Testament)
Completed in 449 BCE, these civil laws were developed by the Roman Republic to protect individuals following demands by plebeians.
Hindu god called the Preserver. Vishnu is the second member of the triad that includes Brahma the Creator and Shiva the Destroyer.
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these 'barbarians,' as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century CE during the Han Dynasty.
River that cuts through central China and flows from the mountains of Tibet to Pacific Ocean
Yellow Turban Uprising
Large revolt throughout China during the Han dynasty led by desperate peasants upset with over-taxation. This uprising tested the resilience of the Han state during the late second century CE. It weakened the Han state during the second and third centuries CE. Led to fall of Han Dynasty.
A religion originating in ancient Persia. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda, emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil. Was the basis for Middle Eastern monotheistic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
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